Chapter 11 overview Cultural trends from 1793-1860 in the old south
The Old South Since early colonial period forced labor was considered an essential part of the Southern Economy. Two causes As plantation agriculture expanded so did the need for slaves. Slaves were the only workers readily available for landowners if they were going to continue to turn a profit.
Social Class There was a clear divide in white culture This divide became more tenuous in the last decade before the Civil War. See the development of class and caste system Class: access to wealth and productive Unequal resources Caste: inherited advantages or disadvantages based on racial ancestry
Planter classes Top-Large plantation owners= Own the largest percentage of slaves. Less of a relationship between owner and slaves Middle- Small farmer holders= Owned a small number of slaves. Closer relationship with slaves often worked right beside them. Bottom-Yeomen Farmers=Usually ambitious young men. Slaves and Plantations were seldom usually in the back country.
Statistics By 1860 only a quarter of the white population in the south were slave holders Twenty percent of whites owned twenty or fewer slaves For the most part we can see that on the verge of the civil war the south was dominated by class that was the minority.
Slave life Most slaves were placed on units to live and work. They were also placed in gangs usually kept in place by an overseer.
Family life Family ties were close. As well as community which religion helped build. If a child was orpahned they would quickly be brought into another family.
Uprisings Open rebellion and the taking up of arms was the most clear cut form of resistance. From 1800-1831 we see a dramatic increase in revolts Gabriel's army in Virginia 263 1811 Louisiana several hundred slaves revolt requiring the assistance of 300 members of U.S. military and armed planters to put down. 1822 Charleston South Carolina Vesey conspiracy discovered and stopped. The Conspiracy was based around a freed slave leading other slaves to raid weapons depot.
Nat Turner rebellion 1831 a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55–65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by slave uprisings in the South. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for over two months afterward. Overall: Only a small amount of the actual slave population chose violent uprising as form of resistance simply because the odds were so stacked against them.
Other forms of resistance Under ground rail road: an informal network of freed or fugitive slaves as well as abolitionists. The general make up of these slaves are from the more northern southern states and are more affluent.
Close minded society As this society progressed the plantations owners at the top became fearful of attacks on all sides They felt that any slave could be a Nat Turner waiting to revolt They were also afraid of the yeomen siding with abolitionists and finding a way to take away their slaves.
Southern Discussion In the 1830s there is a prominent discussion about what to do with slaves Some state it is just a necessary evil The American Colonization society developed the idea of emancipating slaves and sending them back to Africa After the Nat Turner rebellion there was a brief the discussion about possibly emancipating slaves.
Defense of Pro Slavery Three arguments were used to defend slavery 1.Enslavement was natural and proper for people of African descent, because they are naturally inferior to whites. 2. Slavery was sanctioned by the bible. 3.Slavery was consistent with the humanitarian spirit of the nineteenth century. Based on the idea that blacks were naturally dependant and white owners provided a safe enviroment.
Rise of the cotton Kingdom Originally the warm climate in the south was perfect for cotton and tobacco. Cotton though profitable was hard to harvest quickly before the winter months. By 1793 the solution was found when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. The gin would only lead into an increase in the demand for slaves.
A Fault in the foundation As the country was formed in 1776 the issue of slavery divided the country, and the problem was never solved First solution= 3/5 compromise
The constitution and slavery The Constitution gave the federal government the right to abolish international slave trade. There was no way to regulate or destroy the institution as it existed in state government. The founding fathers hoped that the institution of slavery would be done away with in time, but it still depended on the states.
Abolitionists and the constitution Radical Abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison saw flaws these flaws in the constitution as unacceptable. Garrison felt that “Higher law” was meant to free slaves from bondage. Garrison would burn the constitution in protest This is not all abolitionists many saw the constitution as a binding contract
The Issue The constitution in its language does not explain weather or not future states should be free or slave states. This lead to the crisis in Missouri. By 1840 when new states start to emerge the idea of letting both free and lave states expand starts to break down
New State Emergence Texas becomes a State= Slave State Oregon becomes a state= Free New Mexico and California= In theory Slave Abolitionists look at the issue of New Mexico and California and look to congress to try and weigh in on the issue.
Free soil Movement Developed by David Wilmot, A democrat from Pennsylvania Originally the movement starts with an amendment that is will be added to a military bill Would ban slavery in any territory acquired by Mexico
Wilmot Provisio Proposed that African Americans should be prohibited to settle areas that obtained from Mexico. Free soil movement believed that slaves would take away opportunity from free workers. When it came to a vote there was a clear split between North and South. In the end the idea was blocked in the senate. In response southerners would attempt to extends the compromise borders, but this effort also failed.
Popular Sovereignty The idea brought up by democrat Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed that the settlers of the territory would decide if it was free or slave. Congress could not figure out how to solve the Mexico issue and it would find its way into the next election
Election of 1848 Democrats nominate Cass based squatter or popular sovereignty. Whigs run General Zachary Taylor who did not commit himself on any side of the slavery issue. (Her would receive support from both Northern and Southern Whigs) Free Soil party nominates Martin Van Bueren. Taylor will come on top quite easily as the other two parties confuse their message.
Taylor and Mexico Taylor originally planned to admit the new states quickly not tying them up in limbo When this did not work it started to become clear that the new states would develop as free states Taylor received heavy flack from southerners who thought hew was pushing Wilmot Proviso Calhoun would use this period in an attempt to unify southern politicians.
Compromise of 1850 Seeing that Taylors plan might go through the south begins to propose ideas that can at least give them some benefits Proposed by Henry clay there were a number on concessions California would become a free state. While there was no prohibition of slavery in the Mexico Territories Eventually the compromise would pass with some changes. One was the death of Zachary Taylor the other were the changes made by Stephen A. Douglass and the support of Millard Phillmore.
The Finalized Compromise. The original problem with the 1850 compromise was that it was attempted to be pass ass one large Bill. When President Phillmore entered he broke the bill down into smaller parts. The ending compromise brought Texas in as a slave state, California as free, and New Mexico and Utah to be determined by popular sovereignty Added to the bill were stricter fugitive slave laws.
Fugitive slave laws The strictness of the changes in the slave laws was outrageous. Fugitive slaves were unable to have Jury trial or testify on their own behalf.
Political decisions One of the reasons that the compromise of 1850 was able to occur was the aspect that neither the Whig or democrat party had taken a stance on slavery. This was due to the fact that taking a stance would cost votes.
The Election of 1852 The election lacked any real key issue since the slavery issue had been handled. The Whig party mad a clear error backing Nativist ideas. Nativism: the political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
The Election of 1852 Many protestant Whigs targeted the influx of Catholics coming into the country. This lead to many Catholics taking sides with the Democratic party. The Democrat's Franklin Pierce defeated the Whig’s Winfield Scott.
Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois proposed a bill to organize the territory west of the Missouri and Iowa territory Douglass knew he would have a lot of angry southerners to deal with if he built more free states To deal with this Douglas tried to ignore the compromise line and tried to quickly establish governments based on popular sovereignty Eventually an addition to the act would be made that would essentially repeal the Missouri Compromise The bill would pass splitting the Democratic party and sectional harmony.
Results Northerners felt that the bill was plot for the continuation of slavery. Southerners originally had little interest in it, but then felt obligated to support it. The bill also crippled the Whig party, as congressional representatives split along sectional lines for the bill. An anti democratic would evolve into stronger free soil party, the Republicans. It also killed a plan Pierce had to buy Cuba from the Spanish.
Republicans The republicans was filled with seasoned politicians from both the Whigs and Democrats. Republicans used the free soil party to explain that the west was a place for people to find economic freedom and opportunity. They pushed for popular sovereignty which caused controversy and a greater following.
Emergence of a new party With the Whigs beginning to fault we find another group of citizens form a party mostly based on the opposition to expansion of slavery The Know nothings: The result was a group that was based on a nativist platform Goals : Extend period of naturalization for citizens Mostly against: Chinese Catholics Irish and Germans.
Bleeding Kansas Settlers in Kansas were mostly believers in the ideals of free soil A small scale civil war did occur when pro- slavery group attacked the free capital of Lawrence. Upon hearing of these events Reverend John Brown lead a group of followers killing five men in cold blood.
The 1856 election Republican Nomination featured mostly candidates from the North The Nominee will be Freemont The democrats Passed up Pierce for James Buchanan who many years of public service. Running on the idea of Popular sovereignty. Know nothings chose Millard Fillmore Buchannen would go on to win the presidency.
Dred Scott Case Buchannan hoped to end the slavery debates quickly, which lead to him pushing the supreme court to a decision in Dred Scott V. Sandford The Case revolved around the fact that a slave was suing for his freedom being he lived in a state where slavery was outlawed by the Missouri Compromise.
The Ruling First African America neither free nor slaves counted as a U.S. citizen Second more importantly the court stated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. That congress could not pass laws based on slavery in the states. This took away from the Republican platform that was discussing laws to repeal slavery.
The Le Compton Controversy With the Dread Scott decision the proslavery groups of Kansas felt it was time to draft a constitution and become a slave state. Though the area was strongly free the pro slavery side rigged the election, this lead to the free side rejecting the election all together.