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EUROPEAN ABSOLUTISM AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1600-1763.

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Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN ABSOLUTISM AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1600-1763."— Presentation transcript:

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2 EUROPEAN ABSOLUTISM AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT

3 The Connection Humanist writers study ancient Greek and Roman manuscripts Ren. artists’ use of perspective leads to better observation of the real world Northern Ren. focuses more on Christianity and education Luther’s desire to reveal the truth about the Bible leads to a split in the Catholic Church Gutenberg’s printing press rapidly spreads Protestant ideas, weakening the Church’s control The Scientific Revolution develops a systematic method to explain the universe Enlightenment thinkers apply science and reason to explain human nature American patriots use Enlightenment philosophy to justify a revolution

4 The Connection Spain, France, and England develop nation-states over time by kicking out minorities and consolidating land The Sun King develops an absolute monarchy copied by the European nobility The Treaty of Westphalia after the Thirty Years’ War establishes the notion of sovereignty in law New nation-states, such as Austria, evolve within existing states (e.g. The Holy Roman Empire – itself a failed nation-state) Tudor monarchs in England rule absolutely, but the power of parliament begins to rise The Glorious Revolution leads to the further weakening of the monarchy Enlightenment writers stress individual rights and defend the idea of revolution Colonial self- government and capitalism leads to an American Revolution

5 The Nation-State ETHNICITY Ethnic Identity CITIZENSHIP Civic Identity

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8 Europe After the Peace of Westphalia

9 European Exploration and Colonization Diffused the Nation-State Worldwide

10 Age of Absolutism Definition: comes from the traditional transfer of power to heirs to the throne AND the belief in “divine right of kings”. Characteristics: – Sovereignty rest in the person of the king/queen – Absolute monarchs more powerful than assemblies – Nobles are controlled by ruler – Control over the Roman Catholic Church – Had large standing armies

11 French Absolutism A)Henry IV ( ) Bourbon Dynasty Wars of Religion – Huguenots (Fr. Protestants) vs. Catholics “Paris is worth a mass” Edict of Nantes (1598) – freedom of religion; fortify cities Brings back traditional Estates: 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd

12 Louis XII ( ) Cardinal Richelieu a politique who weakened… Huguenots – no fortified cities (maintain religious freedom) Nobles – destroyed fortified castles & armies; reduced power Responsible for constructing foundation for an absolute monarchy.

13 The Sun King Sun

14 Louis XIV: The Sun King ( )  Divine right of kings (ordained by God); “L’etat c’est moi” (“I am the state”)  Absolute rule (no opposition)  Moves court, gov’t, & key nobles to Versailles ( elaborate prison ) – must serve king to advance in power  Centralization of power

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16 Construction of Versailles

17 The French Nation-State ) – Culture - revokes Edict of Nantes; hurts France (loss of revenues, workers, 200,000 Huguenots) – Military - creates the grandest army in Europe; fights several wars (drains economy) – Economy - mercantilism; protects industries (subsidies, high tariffs, colonies)

18 Legacy of the Sun King – Culture – France becomes strongest & most influential state; other monarchs duplicate French ways – Military – other states ally against France to create a balance of power – Economy – in shambles; expensive court, Versailles & wars drain money (debt haunts successors)

19 The Enlightenment The Age of Reason (~ ) – Scientific Revolution – reason used to discover physical laws; leads to… – Rationalism – reason used to discover natural laws (human nature)

20 Thomas Hobbes – – Leviathan (1651) People lived in anarchy; “state of nature”; “brutish” & dangerous Unwritten “social contract” w/ absolute ruler (to maintain stability) Retain only the right to life

21 Leviathan

22 – John Locke – Two Treatises of Government (1690) 1) “Social contract;” retain rights to life … liberty & property; rulers must preserve rights 2) If “natural laws” are broken, people have right to revolt; overthrow ruler 3) Justification for the “Glorious Revolution” of England (mid 1600s)

23 Age of Enlightenment (~ ) – Philosophes (“lovers of wisdom”) use science and reason to improve society – Denis Diderot - edits Encyclopedia (mid 1700s; 28 volumes) Philosophes contribute articles; criticize church, gov’t, taxes, slave trade, … society should benefit ALL Monarchies & Church attempt to suppress ideas … but Enlightenment thoughts diffuse (e.g., salons, writings) Madame Geoffrin & de Pompadour

24 Denis Diderot

25 – Baron de Montesquieu a) The Spirit of the Laws (1748); analyzes world gov’ts b) England - power divided “equally” among 3 branches; executive, legislative, & judicial (misunderstood – exec. & leg. largely combined in House of Commons) c) Checks and balances - nearly perfect gov’t

26 – Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) Wrote against intolerance & injustice Targeted corrupt officials, slave trade, religious intolerance,… Imprisoned (Bastille) & exiled Freedom of speech – “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”

27 – Jean-Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract (1762); tabula rasa (“clean slate”) Society corrupts; unequal distribution of property; too many limitations Naturally “good” state preserved only by a gov’t the people choose & control (pop. sovereignty) “General will” - individual should be subordinate to the community (different from other philosophes)

28 The American Nation A) Clash of the Titans – Seven Years War ( ) - France & England aim to control America – Other European powers involved (e.g., Prussia vs. Austria) – Treaty of Paris (1763) – Britain & allies win; reduces French hold in America – War united American colonists (fought for common cause – defense)

29 – Adam Smith - physiocrat The Wealth of Nations (1776) Natural laws - Supply and Demand; Competition (“Invisible Hand”) Scarcity - increases price Free Enterprise - based on supply, demand, & competition Laissez-faire (“let-do”); hands-off - no gov’t intervention

30 Monarchy Popular sovereignty Strict gov’t control Laissez faire, private property MonopoliesCompetition Tariffs & subsidies Free trade Acquisition of gold & silver Development of goods through industries

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