Presentation on theme: "Growing Tensions Between North and South"— Presentation transcript:
1Growing Tensions Between North and South The economies of the North and South developed differently in the early 1800’s.The North began to develop industry and trade.The south relied on plantation farming.
2Growing Tensions Between North and South Due to industrialization rapid population growth happened in Northern cities.Much of the population growth came from immigration.Immigrants and Easterners were moving west and building farms in the new states formed from the Northwest Territory.Most canals and railroads ran east to west mainly in the north causing the Mid-west and Northwest to develop strong ties to one another.
3Growing Tensions Between North and South The south developed quite differently.The southern society was controlled by a few wealthy planters.The planters made great profits from slave labor.Much of the profit came from trade, and the planters relied on exports, especially cotton.
4Growing Tensions Between North and South Because this was so profitable the planters invested in in slaves and agricultural instead of industry.The south developed very little industry.Most poor white southerners were farmers who did not own slaves, but they supported slavery because it kept them off the bottom of society.
5Antislavery and Racism The issue of slavery caused tension between north and south and started to divide the nation (sectionalism).The abolitionist movement began growing in the north during the 1830’s.Some northern workers and immigrants opposed slavery because they saw it as an economic threat (slaves did not receive pay).
6Antislavery and Racism Despite their opposition to slavery most northerners were racist.They refused to let their kids go to school with, work with, or live near African Americans.Free African Americans could not vote.
7Antislavery and Racism When northerners attacked slavery the slaveholders defended their way of life.Most offered the argument that white people were superior to blacks.Many claimed that slavery helped the slaves by introducing them to Christianity, providing them food, clothing, and shelter.Slaveholders were determined to defend their way of life.
8Controversy over Territories In 1848 the nations leaders were debating how to handle slavery in the newly acquired lands from the War with Mexico.The proposed addition of new states threatened the balance of power between north and south in Congress since the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
9Controversy over Territories Southern states don’t have the power to pass a law expand slavery.Northern states don’t have the power to pass a law end slavery.
10The Missouri Compromise of 1820 The balance of power will be threatened when the Missouri territory asked to be admitted to the U.S. as a state.We want to be a state!
11Does it matter what we want? The Missouri Compromise of 1820Does it matter what we want?We want Missouri to be a free state. No slavery there!-- the NorthWe want Missouri to be a slave state!-- the South
12The Missouri Compromise of 1820 Maine enters as a free state!Missouri enters as a slave state!Missouri Compromiseline3630’No Slavery above the lineSlavery OK below the lineKept power balanced once again in Congress!
13Missouri CompromiseThe Missouri Compromise was made by Henry Clay “the Great Compromiser”
14S. Carolina threatened to secede –causing the Nullification Crisis Compromise of 1833Protective Tariff continued to increase causing S. Carolina to protest. The tariff hurt the South, but benefited the industrial North.John Calhoun [V-President] declared S. Carolina would nullify [not obey] the tariff.S. Carolina threatened to secede –causing the Nullification CrisisNullification is unconstitutionalCongress writes a Force Bill, so Jackson could enforce payment of the tariff.Clay intervenes making a compromise, gradually lowers tariff, S. Carolina would not secede.
15The Wilmot ProvisoTensions over slavery seemed to go away after the Missouri Compromise of 1820.New disagreements arouse with the outbreak of the Mexican American War in 1846.Many Northerners believed that southerners wanted to extend slavery in to the newly acquired territoryDavid Wilmot, a Representative from Pennsylvania, proposed a law outlawing slavery in the newly acquired lands from the war with Mexico.
16The Wilmot ProvisoSoutherners felt their property rights were being violated, Congress had no right to prevent southerners from bringing their property with them when they settled new territories.The Constitution gave equal protection to the property rights of all U.S. citizens.The Proviso removed the right of slaveholders to take their slaves, their property, anywhere in the United States and its territories.It’s unconstitutional the southerners claimed.
17The Wilmot Proviso The Proviso divided Congress along regional lines. It passed the House of Representatives.Southerners killed it in the Senate.
18The Compromise of 1850We want to be a state too!
20The Compromise of 1850The North wanted California admitted as a free state.The South did not want California admitted as a free state.This will upset the balance of power in Congress.
21The Fugitive Slave Law, 1850North did not want to return slaves to the South—moral dilemmaSouth wanted their property (runaway slaves) returned.Became a part of the Compromise of Need to settle the CA dispute.
22Slave trade abolished in Washington, D.C. Compromise of 1850North Got!South Got!Fugitive Slave LawFree StateSlave trade abolished in Washington, D.C.The citizens of each new territory would vote on whether to have slavery or not (Popular Sovereignty).
23Inflamed anti-slavery feelings in the North The Fugitive Slave Law, 1850Federal law made it harder to help slaves escape.It was a federal crime to help runaway slaves.Do what is morally right?Face jailed & be fined?Obey federal law which upset abolitionists.Slaves must escape to Canada.Inflamed anti-slavery feelings in the North
25Kansas Nebraska Act North South Don’t let slavery expand into the new territoriesSouthSlavery here? Let the people decide! Popular sovereignty
26Kansas Nebraska Act Divided territory into Kansas and Nebraska Popular Sovereignty in Kansas—led to bloody 3 year civil warThe people will get to vote if new states will be free or slave!Repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 Line—said NO slave states above 36 30
27The people will get to vote whether Kansas will be free or slave! Popular Sovereignty will reign in KansasThe people will get to vote whether Kansas will be free or slave!Settlers in Kansas want to vote to become a free state. Pro slavery men from Missourisneak into Kansas to vote to make Kansas a slave state. Violence erupts in Lawrence, Ks. 2 separate governments were created: a free govt. and a proslavery govt.John Brown- and extreme abolitionist.Brutally murdered 5 proslavery men!
28Led to a mini Civil War in Kansas John Brown (abolitionist) leads murderous riotsPro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery groups fought a bloody 3 year civil war (“Bleeding Kansas”)Kansas enters as a Free State
29The rise of the Republican party Abraham Lincoln was against slavery.He did not want slavery to expand into the new territoriesLincoln-Douglas Debates—over popular sovereigntyin the territoriesRepublican Party forms inthe North