3Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas Popular Sovereignty& Individual FreedomGlobal Influence ofEnlightenment ValuesPolitical and Legal EqualityMany enlightened philosophesCalled for equalityRecommend society whereAll individuals are equal beforeThe lawRousseau: members of aSociety are sovereign, in anIdeal society indiv. WouldParticipate in the creation of lawsPhilosophes began toQuestion notions ofSovereigntyLocke: indiv. VoluntarilyFormed society & est. gov’tRulers derive authority fromConsent of governedVoltaire: called for religiousToleration and freedom toExpress their views openlyEnlightenment challengedLong established ideasRevolutionary leadersWere influenced byEnlightenment ideasInfluenced the organizationOf states and societiesThroughout the world.
4The American Revolution (1775-1781) Declaration of Independence& Divided LoyaltiesTightened British ControlOver ColoniesBuilding an IndependentStateN. American colonistsBecame disenchanted withBritish imperial ruleReasons forDisenchantment:Geographic distance,Inefficient gov’t , taxationw/o representationJuly 4, 1776 D.o.I. draftedInspired by enlightenmentThought to justify quest forIndependenceEchoed Locke’s ideaDifficult to put independenceInto actionBrits had many advantagesAmericans had much foreignSupport (France, Spain, NetherlandsAnd German principalitiesConstitution emphasizedThe rights of individualsGov’t based on popularsovereignty
5The French Revolution (1789-1799) The Estates GeneralThe National AssemblyLiberty, Equality, & FraternityFrance faced fiscalProblems (war debts)1st estate: RomanCatholic Clergy2nd estate: nobles3rd estate: serf, freePeasants, urban residentsAll estates have same #Of votes even though 3rdEstate has more peopleCalled Estates GeneralInto session to authorize taxes3rd Estate demandedreform3rd estates secede from theEstates General claimThemselves as National AssemblyParisian crowds storm theBastilleMilitary Garrison protecting theBastille surrendersPromulagated Declaration of theRights of Man and the CitizenGuided by American revolutionPrinciples calling for equality for all,Popular sovereignty, & individual rightsAbolish old social orderGot rid of fees of peasantsAbolish 1st estateClergy seen as citizens ofThe stateKing is still executive butNo legislative authorityFrance for a time becameA constitutional monarchy
6Instability of Convention led to people Undermining the regime The French RevolutionThe ConventionThe DirectoryRevolution becomes more radicalFrench nobility attempts to getForeign helpForces the Nat’l Assembly to declareWar on Prussia, Spain, Britain & NetherlandsCounterrevolutionaries start the assemblyKnown as the ConventionAbolished the monarchyUsed the guillotineMaximillien Robespierre (Jacobin Party)Leads the Convention for a timeCommittee of Public Safety- campaign ofTerror, promoted “cult of reason”Instability of Convention led to peopleUndermining the regimeThe Convention arrests RobespierreNew group of conservative men takeOver the Convention and start theDirectoryThe Directory was unable to solve socialAnd economic problemsEnter in Napoleon Bonaparte with aCoup d’ etat
7The Reign of Napoleon Napoleonic France Napoleon’s Empire The Fall of NapoleonNapoleon brought politicalStability to FranceMade an agreement withThe Roman Catholic ChurchKnown as the CONCORDAT (payClerics salaries, prefer RomanCatholic Church, retained landsSeized)This won supportPromulagated the Civil CodeThat stabilized societyMerit based societyLet opponents return to FranceLimited free speech, secretPolice, use of propagandaWanted to extend authorityThroughout EuropeIberian and Italian peninsulas,Netherlands, Austria, PrussiaAttempted to attack RussiaWent to Capital everyoneWas gone and burned downNapoleon did not haveAdequate supplies and housingOpponents of NapoleonTake advantage andForce him to abdicate hisThroneSend him to island of ElbaAttempt to regain powerFor 100 daysBritish army defeats him inBattle of WaterlooOnce again and finally sentTo island of St. Helena
9The Haitian Revolution Slave Revolt andToussaint LouvertureRepublic of HaitiSaint-Domingue Society3 major groups:Whites: European bornColonial administrators,Plantation owners, minorAristocratsGens de colour: People ofColor, mulattoes & blackSlavesPlanters did not take careOf slaves leading to highMortality rateViolent conflicts betweenWhite owners and slavesGen de colour coming fromAmerican Revo. Wanted theSame change in Saint Domingue1791 civil war Gen de ColourAnd white settlersBoukman, voodoo priestOrganizes slave revoltBattle between white,Gen de colour, & slavesFrench attempt to restoreOrderBritish & Spanish interfereLouverture aided the revolutionPut Spanish, Brits, and FrenchAgainst each otherPromulagated a constitution thatGave equality and citizenship to allresidentsNapoleon sent troops toRestore order but yellowFever caught them1803 declared independence1804 establishment ofHaiti
10Wars of Independence in Latin America Latin American SocietyMexican IndependenceSimon BolivarNapoleon’s invasion ofSpain & Portugal weakensColoniesMiguel Hidalgo y Costilla, parish priest, createsPeasant rebellionMestizos against colonialRuleSocial & economic warfareAgainst elitesColonial rule came to an endIn 1821Augustin de Ituribe deposedMexico becomes a republicCentral American Federation:Guatemala, El Salvado, Honduras,Nicaragua, Costa r Rica till 1838Led movements ofIndependence in S. AmericaTook up arms againstSpanish rule and deposedMost throughout S. AmericaGran Colombia:Venezuela, Colombia,Ecuador ended in 1830Revolutionary idealsTraveled to Spanish &Portuguese coloniesCreoles: Euro-AmericanOther groups include: BlackSlaves, mixed ancestry (mestizos& mulattoes)Creoles benefited inPlantations, ranches and tradew/Spain & PortugualSought to displacePeninsulares but retain privilegePositionPolitical independence modelof the U.S.
11Wars of Independence in Latin America Brazilian IndependenceCreole DominanceWhen Napoleon invaded PortugalRoyal court goes to Rio de JaneiroKing returns in 1821 leaves, son,Pedro, behindCreoles call for independence inThe following year. Pedro agrees.Becomes emperor PedroCreoles dominate former coloniesLatin American society remained rigidlyStratifiedCaudillos: military authoritiesContinuation of slaveryConfirmed authority of Roman CatholicChurch
12The Emergence of Ideologies: Conservatism & Liberalism Voting Rights and RestrictionsViewed society as anOrganism that changed slowlyEdmund Burke: condemnedRadical or revolutionary changeApproved American Revo asNatural changing w/historicalDevelopmentDisapproved of FrenchRevolution chaotic and irrespon-Sible to societyChange normal, sign ofProgressViewed conservatism asMaintaining status quo andNot wanting to addressInequalitiesChampioned enligthenmentValues of freedom & equalityLiberalism of Atlantic revolutionsmore concerned about civil rightsAt the end of 19th c. liberals beganTo look to the gov’t to correctProblemsJohn Stuart Mill argued for indiviDual freedomThe idea that in order toEstablish democraticLegitimacy and popularSovereignty universal suffrageIs needed.Suffrage derived legitimacyFrom the EnlightenmentAbout self government andConsent of the governed.
13Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery Movements to endthe Slave TradeMovements toAbolish SlaveryFreedom w/o EqualityIdea to end slave tradeStarted in the 18th c.William Wilberforce:Leading proponent to endThe slave trade.Philanthropist. Member ofParliament1807 Wilberforce’s billPasses to end the slaveTradeOther countries followedSome illegal trade still occurredBigger challengeInexpensive laborEnding slave tradeWould ultimately endSlaveryAbolition brought legalFreedom, not politicalEqualityProperty requirements,Literacy rates, poll taxes,IntimidationWhite creoles over blackcreoles
14Testing the Limits of the Revolutionary Ideals: Women’s Rights Enlightenment IdealsAnd WomenWomen and RevolutionWomen’s Rights MovementMost enlightenmentPhilosophers did not believeIn women’s rightsReformers used it to theirAdvantageMary Wollstonecraft: “AVindication for the Rights ofWomen” stated womenPossessed all the rights of men(education, contribute to society)Women participated in theRevolutions in various waysPreparing uniforms,Bandages, managing farms,Shops & businessesThey found little politicalFreedom and equality19th c. women pressedFor their rights and abolitionOf slaveryElizabeth Cady Stanton:Called for women’s rights,Movement gained limitedSuccess in the 19th centuryBut gained momentum inThe 20th c.
16Nations and Nationalism Cultural NationalismPolitical NationalismRefers to the type of communityThat became prominent in 19th c.Distinctive people born into aUnique community w/commonLanguage, customs, culture, values,And historical experiencesNation must be focus of politicalLoyaltySought to deepen appreciation forHistorical experiences of the nationGermany held great political nationalismAdvocates of nationalism demandedLoyalty and solidarity from membersPeople that lived in lands of foreignRule or who were the minorities oftenSought their own independenceThis could often led to conflict betweenThe ruled and rulers
17Nations and Nationalism Nationalism and Anti-SemitismZionismZionism: the idea that the JewishPeople have their right to their ownNational homelandJews were throughout Europe and oftenThe minoritiesMany nationalist distrusted Jews andBrought Anti-SemitismEspecially visible in Eastern Europe(Austria-Hungary & Germany)Theodor Herzl, Journalist, realized anti-Semitism was a persistent feature ofHuman society and assimilation couldNot be solvedFounded the World Zionist OrganizationWhich sought to find a home for theJewish communityLocation “ancient kingdom of Israel”Today known as PalestineProvoked resentful nationalism fromDisplaced Arabs
18The Emergence of National Communities Congress of Vienna ( )Nationalist RebellionsAfter the Great Powers (Britain, Austria,Prussia and Russia) deposed Napoleon aMeeting was held to return power backInto the hands of the old prerevolutionaryOrder.Countries did not want one to dominateThe otherThis meeting, and return to old way,Proved futile and did not last long (100 years),The idea of Popular sovereignty had beenEmbedded into the citizens of nations1820s-1840s a wave of national rebellionOccurred throughout Europe.Greeks sought and gained independenceFrom Ottoman TurksRebellions in France, Spain, and PortugalCalled for constitutional gov’t based onPopular sovereigntyBelgium, Italy and Poland called for theFormation of national states
19The Unification of Italy and Germany Cavour and GaribaldiOtto von BismarkPrime minister of King VittoreEmmanuele II of Peidemontand Sardinia united with nationalAdvocates of independenceCavour expelled Austrian authoritiesFrom N. ItalySoldier Garibaldi dealt with forcesIn Southern ItalyEventually unifying all of Italy into onestatePrime MinisterDrew German sentiment againstDenmark, Austria and France in 3Victorious war.sDrew up German pride.Prussian King Wilhem I announceThe establishment of the Second Reich-Second German empire-following theHoly Roman EmpireUnifications and nationalism hadEnormous potentialNational states created flags, anthems,Holidays, created schools, nat’l populations,Recruitments to foster patriotism andPatriotic values