Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas Popular Sovereignty & Individual Freedom Political and Legal Equality Global Influence of Enlightenment Values Philosophes began to Question notions of Sovereignty Locke: indiv. Voluntarily Formed society & est. gov’t Rulers derive authority from Consent of governed Voltaire: called for religious Toleration and freedom to Express their views openly Many enlightened philosophes Called for equality Recommend society where All individuals are equal before The law Rousseau: members of a Society are sovereign, in an Ideal society indiv. Would Participate in the creation of laws Enlightenment challenged Long established ideas Revolutionary leaders Were influenced by Enlightenment ideas Influenced the organization Of states and societies Throughout the world.
The American Revolution (1775-1781) Tightened British Control Over Colonies Declaration of Independence & Divided Loyalties Building an Independent State N. American colonists Became disenchanted with British imperial rule Reasons for Disenchantment: Geographic distance, Inefficient gov’t, taxation w/o representation July 4, 1776 D.o.I. drafted Inspired by enlightenment Thought to justify quest for Independence Echoed Locke’s idea Difficult to put independence Into action Brits had many advantages Americans had much foreign Support (France, Spain, Netherlands And German principalities Constitution emphasized The rights of individuals Gov’t based on popular sovereignty
The French Revolution (1789-1799) The Estates General The National AssemblyLiberty, Equality, & Fraternity France faced fiscal Problems (war debts) 1 st estate: Roman Catholic Clergy 2 nd estate: nobles 3 rd estate: serf, free Peasants, urban residents All estates have same # Of votes even though 3 rd Estate has more people Called Estates General Into session to authorize taxes 3 rd Estate demanded reform 3 rd estates secede from the Estates General claim Themselves as National Assembly Parisian crowds storm the Bastille Military Garrison protecting the Bastille surrenders Promulagated Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Guided by American revolution Principles calling for equality for all, Popular sovereignty, & individual rights Abolish old social order Got rid of fees of peasants Abolish 1 st estate Clergy seen as citizens of The state King is still executive but No legislative authority France for a time became A constitutional monarchy
The French Revolution The ConventionThe Directory Revolution becomes more radical French nobility attempts to get Foreign help Forces the Nat’l Assembly to declare War on Prussia, Spain, Britain & Netherlands Counterrevolutionaries start the assembly Known as the Convention Abolished the monarchy Used the guillotine Maximillien Robespierre (Jacobin Party) Leads the Convention for a time Committee of Public Safety- campaign of Terror, promoted “cult of reason” Instability of Convention led to people Undermining the regime The Convention arrests Robespierre New group of conservative men take Over the Convention and start the Directory The Directory was unable to solve social And economic problems Enter in Napoleon Bonaparte with a Coup d’ etat
The Reign of Napoleon Napoleonic FranceNapoleon’s Empire The Fall of Napoleon Napoleon brought political Stability to France Made an agreement with The Roman Catholic Church Known as the CONCORDAT (pay Clerics salaries, prefer Roman Catholic Church, retained lands Seized) This won support Promulagated the Civil Code That stabilized society Merit based society Let opponents return to France Limited free speech, secret Police, use of propaganda Wanted to extend authority Throughout Europe Iberian and Italian peninsulas, Netherlands, Austria, Prussia Attempted to attack Russia Went to Capital everyone Was gone and burned down Napoleon did not have Adequate supplies and housing Opponents of Napoleon Take advantage and Force him to abdicate his Throne Send him to island of Elba Attempt to regain power For 100 days British army defeats him in Battle of Waterloo Once again and finally sent To island of St. Helena
The Haitian Revolution Saint-Domingue Society Slave Revolt and Toussaint Louverture Republic of Haiti 3 major groups: Whites: European born Colonial administrators, Plantation owners, minor Aristocrats Gens de colour: People of Color, mulattoes & black Slaves Planters did not take care Of slaves leading to high Mortality rate Violent conflicts between White owners and slaves Gen de colour coming from American Revo. Wanted the Same change in Saint Domingue 1791 civil war Gen de Colour And white settlers Boukman, voodoo priest Organizes slave revolt Battle between white, Gen de colour, & slaves French attempt to restore Order British & Spanish interfere Louverture aided the revolution Put Spanish, Brits, and French Against each other Promulagated a constitution that Gave equality and citizenship to all residents Napoleon sent troops to Restore order but yellow Fever caught them 1803 declared independence 1804 establishment of Haiti
Wars of Independence in Latin America Latin American Society Mexican Independence Simon Bolivar Revolutionary ideals Traveled to Spanish & Portuguese colonies Creoles: Euro-American Other groups include: Black Slaves, mixed ancestry (mestizos & mulattoes) Creoles benefited in Plantations, ranches and trade w/Spain & Portugual Sought to displace Peninsulares but retain privilege Position Political independence model of the U.S. Napoleon’s invasion of Spain & Portugal weakens Colonies Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, parish priest, creates Peasant rebellion Mestizos against colonial Rule Social & economic warfare Against elites Colonial rule came to an end In 1821 Augustin de Ituribe deposed Mexico becomes a republic Central American Federation: Guatemala, El Salvado, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa r Rica till 1838 Led movements of Independence in S. America Took up arms against Spanish rule and deposed Most throughout S. America Gran Colombia: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador ended in 1830
Wars of Independence in Latin America Brazilian IndependenceCreole Dominance When Napoleon invaded Portugal Royal court goes to Rio de Janeiro King returns in 1821 leaves, son, Pedro, behind Creoles call for independence in The following year. Pedro agrees. Becomes emperor Pedro Creoles dominate former colonies Latin American society remained rigidly Stratified Caudillos: military authorities Continuation of slavery Confirmed authority of Roman Catholic Church
The Emergence of Ideologies: Conservatism & Liberalism ConservatismLiberalism Voting Rights and Restrictions Viewed society as an Organism that changed slowly Edmund Burke: condemned Radical or revolutionary change Approved American Revo as Natural changing w/historical Development Disapproved of French Revolution chaotic and irrespon- Sible to society Change normal, sign of Progress Viewed conservatism as Maintaining status quo and Not wanting to address Inequalities Championed enligthenment Values of freedom & equality Liberalism of Atlantic revolutions more concerned about civil rights At the end of 19 th c. liberals began To look to the gov’t to correct Problems John Stuart Mill argued for indivi Dual freedom The idea that in order to Establish democratic Legitimacy and popular Sovereignty universal suffrage Is needed. Suffrage derived legitimacy From the Enlightenment About self government and Consent of the governed.
Testing the Limits of Revolutionary Ideals: Slavery Movements to end the Slave Trade Movements to Abolish Slavery Freedom w/o Equality Idea to end slave trade Started in the 18 th c. William Wilberforce: Leading proponent to end The slave trade. Philanthropist. Member of Parliament 1807 Wilberforce’s bill Passes to end the slave Trade Other countries followed Some illegal trade still occurred Bigger challenge Inexpensive labor Ending slave trade Would ultimately end Slavery Abolition brought legal Freedom, not political Equality Property requirements, Literacy rates, poll taxes, Intimidation White creoles over black creoles
Testing the Limits of the Revolutionary Ideals: Women’s Rights Enlightenment Ideals And Women Women and RevolutionWomen’s Rights Movement Most enlightenment Philosophers did not believe In women’s rights Reformers used it to their Advantage Mary Wollstonecraft: “A Vindication for the Rights of Women” stated women Possessed all the rights of men (education, contribute to society) Women participated in the Revolutions in various ways Preparing uniforms, Bandages, managing farms, Shops & businesses They found little political Freedom and equality 19th c. women pressed For their rights and abolition Of slavery Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Called for women’s rights, Movement gained limited Success in the 19 th century But gained momentum in The 20 th c.
Nations and Nationalism Cultural NationalismPolitical Nationalism Refers to the type of community That became prominent in 19 th c. Distinctive people born into a Unique community w/common Language, customs, culture, values, And historical experiences Nation must be focus of political Loyalty Sought to deepen appreciation for Historical experiences of the nation Germany held great political nationalism Advocates of nationalism demanded Loyalty and solidarity from members People that lived in lands of foreign Rule or who were the minorities often Sought their own independence This could often led to conflict between The ruled and rulers
Nations and Nationalism Nationalism and Anti-SemitismZionism Zionism: the idea that the Jewish People have their right to their own National homeland Jews were throughout Europe and often The minorities Many nationalist distrusted Jews and Brought Anti-Semitism Especially visible in Eastern Europe (Austria-Hungary & Germany) Theodor Herzl, Journalist, realized anti- Semitism was a persistent feature of Human society and assimilation could Not be solved Founded the World Zionist Organization Which sought to find a home for the Jewish community Location “ancient kingdom of Israel” Today known as Palestine Provoked resentful nationalism from Displaced Arabs
The Emergence of National Communities Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Nationalist Rebellions After the Great Powers (Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia) deposed Napoleon a Meeting was held to return power back Into the hands of the old prerevolutionary Order. Countries did not want one to dominate The other This meeting, and return to old way, Proved futile and did not last long (100 years), The idea of Popular sovereignty had been Embedded into the citizens of nations 1820s-1840s a wave of national rebellion Occurred throughout Europe. Greeks sought and gained independence From Ottoman Turks Rebellions in France, Spain, and Portugal Called for constitutional gov’t based on Popular sovereignty Belgium, Italy and Poland called for the Formation of national states
The Unification of Italy and Germany Cavour and GaribaldiOtto von Bismark Prime minister of King Vittore Emmanuele II of Peidemont and Sardinia united with national Advocates of independence Cavour expelled Austrian authorities From N. Italy Soldier Garibaldi dealt with forces In Southern Italy Eventually unifying all of Italy into one state Prime Minister Drew German sentiment against Denmark, Austria and France in 3 Victorious war.s Drew up German pride. Prussian King Wilhem I announce The establishment of the Second Reich- Second German empire-following the Holy Roman Empire Unifications and nationalism had Enormous potential National states created flags, anthems, Holidays, created schools, nat’l populations, Recruitments to foster patriotism and Patriotic values