Presentation on theme: "EXPANSION, COMPROMISE & THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR."— Presentation transcript:
EXPANSION, COMPROMISE & THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR
The Settlement of Texas The first settlement of Americans the in Mexican-owned province of Texas was established by Stephen Austin in 1822… The Austin settlement soon attracted 30,000 settlers… And by the 1830’s was exporting large and tremendously valuable shipments of cotton… Most of which was produced by slave labor. The Austin settlers had agreed to become Mexican citizens and to convert to Catholicism… Which they failed to do… And when the Mexican government decided to seek greater control over the province… The Americans began to call for REVOLUTION and INDEPENDENCE.
Tension Erupts into War As tension mounted, an additional 20,000 Americans flooded into Texas… Who were openly expansionist with no intention of becoming Mexican citizens… And compromise became impossible with the seizure of power in Mexico by General Santa Anna… Who was determined to snuff out the rebellious atmosphere that was rapidly spreading across the Texas province. When a contingent of Mexican forces arrived in San Antonio to keep order in the city… A volunteer army of American Texans ATTACKED… And WON the first battle in Texas’ War of Independence.
The Battle of the Alamo Santa Anna launched a MAJOR counterattack, sweeping into San Antonio with several thousand troops. A group of Texan rebels—numbering only 200—were trapped at the ALAMO—a walled fortress in San Antonio. Santa Anna gave them a choice: Surrender or die. The Texans REFUSED to surrender and a 13-day battle ensued… When the Mexicans finally entered the Alamo, they executed every survivor… The executions ENRAGED the Texans, who vowed revenge.
“Remember the Alamo!” After the slaughter at the Alamo, Santa Anna led his forces in pursuit of the remains of rebel forces… Led by Sam Houston. Trapped on the banks of the San Jacinto River, Houston’s forces launched a sudden counterattack… That demolished Santa Anna’s army. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign a treaty recognizing Texan independence… Sam Houston was elected the first President of Texas… Slavery was legalized “FOREVER” in the new nation.
In the fall of 1836, the Republic of Texas voted to join the United States. The North opposed the idea. Mexican dictator Santa Anna threatened war if Texas joined the Union. In 1844, a strong expansion-supporter, James K. Polk, was elected president. In 1845, Texas became the 28 th state and Mexico immediately broke off diplomatic relations.
Why did Northerners tend to oppose efforts to make Texas a state? A.) they did not want to pay the additional taxes made necessary by enlarging the Union. B.) they were concerned about the possibility of war with Mexico. C.) they did not want another slave state to be granted Congressional representation. D.) they wanted the California territory to be granted statehood before Texas.
War with Mexico President Polk demanded ALL Mexican territory north of the Rio Grande River… From Texas to the Pacific Ocean… The Mexicans REFUSED… Polk offered to PURCHASE New Mexico and California… The Mexicans REFUSED… So Polk ordered 3,000 troops into the disputed territory... Hoping that the Mexicans would ATTACK… And they DID… Which allowed the US to declare WAR.
California & New Mexico By 1847… California had declared INDEPENDENCE from Mexico… And was under the control of the US Army. New Mexico had also been captured by US forces.
Fighting in Mexico In September of 1847, US Marines landed at Vera Cruz… Fought their way to Mexico City… And captured the capital… Leading to Mexico’s surrender.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico gave up Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. The US received New Mexico and California (two-fifths of Mexico’s entire territory). The US paid Mexico $15 million. Mexico refers to the war as the North American Invasion.
One problem (with respect to the slavery issue) with the huge amount of territory captured from Mexico during the Mexican War was that... A.) the United States was required to pay a large amount of money for the rights to use it. B.) most of the territory was below the 36-30 line. C.) the Mexican army continued to occupy land north of the Rio Grande River. D.) the US Army was not large enough to bring it under their control.
The Wilmot Proviso Was a proposal brought before Congress in 1846… That sought to BAN SLAVERY in the so-called Mexican Cession— All the territory captured from Mexico in the war. It came up for a vote several times… Was supported by Northerners and opposed by Southerners… And never passed.
California & The Gold Rush Gold was discovered in California in 1848. One year later the population jumped from 14,000 to 100,000. Most “Forty-niners” were unmarried men. Many Chinese immigrants also arrived. The prosperity of the Pacific Coast exploded. And a movement began to make California a state. Because the primary industry was MINING—and miners generally refused to work with slaves— California requested to be admitted as a FREE STATE. This request threw the nation into uproar once again—WHY?
Drafted by Henry Clay. Five separate laws… 1.California would be admitted as a free state. 2.The people of the New Mexico and Utah territories would decide the slavery question by voting (popular sovereignty). 3.The slave trade is abolished in Washington, D.C, but… 4.Slavery would remain legal in Washington, D.C. 5.The Fugitive Slave Act is passed—makes harboring or assisting runaway slaves a felony.
Which of the following was a component of the Fugitive Slave Act? A.) all citizens were made to be responsible for catching runaway slaves. B.) slavery would be banned in Washington, D.C. C.) California would be admitted to the union as a free state. D.) New Mexico and Utah could decide the slavery question by popular sovereignty.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act After the Compromise of 1850, there was a brief spell of calm. The calm was exploded when Senator Stephen Douglas submitted a proposal… To immediately grant statehood to the territories of KANSAS and NEBRASKA. Although both territories were ABOVE the 36-30 line… And should have probably been FREE STATES… But Douglas wanted to run for PRESIDENT and couldn’t afford to anger the South… So he introduced the Kansas- Nebraska Act… To allow the territories to decide the issue by POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY.
The Republican Party Was formed by a group of Northerners opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Their goal was to stop the extension of slavery into any new territory. They declared slavery a moral evil. They also demanded the repeal of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Popular Sovereignty Fails in Bleeding Kansas When the time came for Kansas to VOTE… Every HARD-CORE, UNCOMPROMISING ABOLITIONIST from the North… Who was able to make the LONG trip to Kansas… Went to Kansas. And every HARD-CORE PRO-SLAVERY activist from the South… Who could make it to Kansas… Went to Kansas. When the two groups converged on the state… The result was WIDESPREAD VIOLENCE… And when the Pro-Slavery forces won the vote… The abolitionists established their own government and a second, abolitionist capital city. Popular sovereignty had failed.
The Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was the personal slave of a US Army captain… Who, in the course of his career, traveled all over the country—to free territory and slave territory… And brought Dred Scott with him. Upon the death of his owner, Scott sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had become legally “free” upon his many travels to free northern territory. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was property—and not a citizen— And, as such, could not file lawsuits.
The Implications of Dred Scott The designation of slaves as “property” by the Supreme Court… Meant that they were protected by the 5 th Amendment and could not be taken away from their owners. The decision invalidated all anti-slavery legislation… And meant that slave- owners could bring their slaves to any state in the union.
Which of following about the Dred Scott decision is NOT true? A.) the decision held that a slave had the choice to be free upon his owner's death. B.) the decision held that slaves were property. C.) the decision held that Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in a territory. D.) the decision held that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
John Brown and Harpers Ferry John Brown was a RADICAL ABOLITIONIST… Perhaps the MOST RADICAL… He believed that he was “God’s chosen instrument” to end slavery. Partly inspired by Nat Turner’s rebellion… He staged a raid on the Federal Arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. His plan was to seize weapons, give them to slaves and lead a general uprising. His attack failed when the arsenal was surrounded by US Forces… Brown was convicted of TREASON and HANGED… This incident and the Dred Scott decision led most people to believe that there could be NO PEACEFUL SOLUTION to the slavery issue.