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Libertyville HS. Election of 1848  Polk stepped down (one term)  Whigs recruit Zachary Taylor War hero Not interested in politics  Democrats split.

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Presentation on theme: "Libertyville HS. Election of 1848  Polk stepped down (one term)  Whigs recruit Zachary Taylor War hero Not interested in politics  Democrats split."— Presentation transcript:

1 Libertyville HS

2 Election of 1848  Polk stepped down (one term)  Whigs recruit Zachary Taylor War hero Not interested in politics  Democrats split over slavery issue Pro slavery Ds = Cass  Anti slavery Ds form Free Soil Party, nominate Martin Van Buren Taylor: 163 ECV / 1,360,999 Cass:127 ECV / 1,220,544 Van Buren: --- ECV / 291,263

3 Zachary Taylor  Born in VA, moved to KY  Career army officer – no political experience  Fought in War of 1812, Blackhawk War, Second Seminole War, Mexican American War  Slave owner who was opposed to spread of slavery into territories  Nickname: “Old Rough and Ready”

4 Sectional Differences: Mexican Cession  Settlement raised question: allow slavery in Mexican Cession?  Four proposals Polk: extend MO compromise line (36° 30’) to Pacific Rep. David Wilmot (PA): Wilmot Proviso = no slavery in Cession Calhoun: Right to property + 5 th Am. protected slavery everywhere Stephen Douglas (IL) & Cass: “popular sovereignty – states have right to choose through elections

5 Sectional Differences: Mexican Cession  Complicating issues Texas Debt ($10 million – Feds pay) TX / NM border dispute Slavery in Washington, DC (northerners offended) Underground railroad (southerners offended) Failure of North to enforce fugitive slave laws  Trigger to crisis: CA request for admission to union as free state, 1849

6 Great Debate of 1850  Senator Seward Admit CA as free state Admit NM as free state Reflected President Taylor’s wishes  Southern reaction Secession! “Fire eaters” = southern extremists Began urging secession, in TN Clay takes Senate floor as VP Fillmore Presides and Calhoun looks on

7 Great Compromise of 1850  Clay, Douglas worked together for its passage  Proposal Admit CA as free state Allow UT, NM to decide slavery issue via popular sovereignty (state vote) TX dropped claim for territory in exchange for debt relief Slave trade (but not slavery) abolished in DC Fugitive Slave Act strengthened

8 Compromise of 1850  View of Southerners Opposed b/c of CA admission as free state Opposed b/c of TX land loss Opposed abolition of slave auctions in DC  View of Northerners Opposed b/c no Wilmot Proviso Opposed b/c Fugitive Slave Law might result in regular citizens having to take part in slave patrols  Northern Democrats (“free soilers”) and Southern Whigs (border states) supported Compromise

9 Compromise of 1850  Major development: during debate, President Taylor died  Millard Fillmore became president  Fillmore a strong supporter of compromise bill  Compromise passed in five separate parts

10 Effect of Compromise  Slave issue resolved to Pacific Ocean  Hardened sectional differences between North, South  Whig Party disintegrated over slavery question (gave too much away to Southerners – 1852 election)  Rise of Republican Party (abolitionists, anti-slavery Whigs)  Avoided Civil War for ten years  Laid seeds for disunion Fugitive Slave Law Kansas-Nebraska Law of 1854

11 Election of 1852  Whigs pass over President Millard Fillmore and nominate General Winfield Scott  Democrats = Franklin Pierce, an unknown compromise candidate Pierce:254 ECV / 1,601,274 Scott: 42 ECV / 1,386,580 Hale --- ECV / 155,825

12 Franklin Pierce  Northerner (NH), with sympathy for southerners  Considered one of the worst presidents, ever Ostend Manifesto Supported Fugitive Slave Law Supported Kansas- Nebraska Act

13 Ostend Manifesto  Southerners wished to annex Cuba Strengthen slave based economy Secret effort to purchase Cuba from Spain for $120 million If Spain wouldn’t sell, diplomats threatened to take Cuba by force  Secret leaked, Northerners freaked  Effect Northerners, feeling threatened by Fugitive Slave Law and “Bleeding Kansas”, pressured Pierce to reject doc Pierce was also forced to oppose due to international outcry from European monarchies "Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present members, and that it belongs naturally to that great family of states of which the Union is the Providential Nursery." ~Ostend Manifesto, 1854

14 Fugitive Slave Law  Constitution required return of fugitive slaves  North rarely enforced earlier law  Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 Made it a $1000 fine for any official who failed to arrest a runaway slave Helping runaway slave = 6 months prison and $1000 fine Slave owners seeking slaves only needed sworn statement to allow arrest of suspected runaway slave Slaves had no right to trial or right to testify in court Effect of whipping

15 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854  Senator Douglas wanted to extend popular sovereignty concept  Repealed Missouri Compromise and created Kansas and Nebraska territories  Opened up huge area to popular sovereignty  Republican Party formed to oppose K-N Act 1854 newspaper map showing free states (red), slave states (gray) And popular sovereignty areas (green)

16 Effect of K-N Act: “Bleeding Kansas”  1854-1859 clashes between “free-staters” and “Border ruffians” (pro-slavery) throughout Kansas Territory  With PS at stake, anti and pro slavery organizations sent 000s of settlers to contest vote  Pro slavery Missourians stole election, making Kansas pro slave territory  Fifty six people were killed in clashes; many more were injured (John Brown) “Bleeding Kansas” Fight

17 Election of 1856  Pierce thrown aside in favor of James Buchanan (PA) – D  John Fremont – GOP Anti-slavery party Slogan: "Free speech, free press, free soil, free men, Frémont and victory!"  Fillmore – “Know Nothing” Party Ignored slavery issue Focused on anti- immigration policies Buchanan:174 ECV / 1,838,169 Fremont:114 ECV / 1,341,264 Fillmore: 8 ECV / 874,534

18 James Buchanan  Northerner (PA), with sympathies for southerners  Vowed to serve one term  Pushed for admission of Kansas as slave territory (despite evidence of corrupt election)  Lincoln’s election in 1860 and secession of states Buchanan said secession illegal He also said fighting secession illegal So he did nothing  Considered one of the worst presidents ever

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