Presentation on theme: "Ch. 11 Summary (Americas) American societies during the post classical era remained isolated American civs. were marked by elaborate cultural systems,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ch. 11 Summary (Americas)American societies during the post classical era remained isolatedAmerican civs. were marked by elaborate cultural systems, highly developed agriculture and large urban and political unitsColumbus’s mistaken designation of the natives of the Americas implies a nonexistent common identityThe great diversity of cultures requires a concentration on a few major civs.The great imperial states of Mesoamerica (central Mexico) and the Andes, plus a few other independently developing peoples
2 Compare the imperial civilizations of the Andes and Mesoamerica Both were based on the long development of preceding civs.They represented the success of imperial and military organization and of extensive agricultural systems controlled by the stateOlder kinship groups had been transformed into a hierarchical systemThe nobility became state personnelBoth reorganized local ethnic groups and political leaders in return for recognition of sovereigntyBelief systems and cosmology were similarEach power had limited success against nomadic people of their frontiersDifference came from climate and geographyAndes region was isolatedTrade, markets and a merchant class was present in each , although they were more developed among the AztecsThe Incas lacked a writing system but had greater metallurgical skillsAztecs made extensive use human sacrifices
3 Compare the civs. of the Americas and Polynesia Both had a strong emphasis on clan-based societiesA division of resources according to clansLack of a writing system (at least among the Inca)Had strong animistic religionsEmphasis on military (at least among the Maori)Lack of tech sophisticationAbsence of large mammalsLack of pastoral nomadismThe practice of human sacrifice and ritual cannibalismPolynesians lacked imperial systems and monumental architecture , which were present in the AmericasIn the Americas the civs. were much larger and had a higher pop. density
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