Presentation on theme: "THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR: SLAVERY ALANA ZUBER, JON DERY, JOSH WEINICK, ANITA UTKIN, & BRITTANY SETO."— Presentation transcript:
THE MAJOR CAUSE OF THE CIVIL WAR: SLAVERY ALANA ZUBER, JON DERY, JOSH WEINICK, ANITA UTKIN, & BRITTANY SETO
BACKGROUND: THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR What is war? “A state of usually open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations” The Civil War was the 4-year war between the Northern and Southern states in the USA. The “hostile conflict” for which they were fighting, was slavery in the territories. Tensions between the North and South had been stirring for years before the war due to slavery in the South and lack of it in the North, which influenced the different lifestyles that developed.
THE NORTH'S AND SOUTH'S ECONOMICAL AND CULTURAL DIVERGENCE PERTAINING TO SLAVERY, DIRECTLY CAUSED THE WAR. NORTH The North, being a more industrial oriented area, and used machinery and factories to produce. Did not rely on slavery, because the North was not agriculturally based. The North made many of their products by utilizing the cotton from the South, and turning it into something new. SOUTH As far back as 1676, after Bacon’s Rebellion (a rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon and a group of former indentured servants who were unemployed) the South began importing African American Slaves to America instead of European indentured servants, because they found them to be more effective. After Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin in 1793, the South became reliant on cotton and agriculture. It needed slaves, though, to cheaply produce the cotton and crops efficiently. Believed that without slavery, their economy would fail.
SLAVERY RAISED TENSIONS BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH, WHICH LED TO THE SECTIONAL DIVIDE. NORTH The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, stated that runaway slaves be returned to the South. Anyone that harbored or ignored these slaves, was arrested or charged. This caused tensions in the North because they saw this as unjust and often didn’t comply with the law. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852): Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe describing the inhumanity of slavery. The novel was graphic and biased, and created much controversy. This drove more Northerners to oppose slavery and the South denied most allegations made in the novel, calling them absurd and Beecher Stowe a liar. Dred Scott Decision: Dred Scott, a slave, born in Missouri, was with his owner in a free state, when he passed away. Scott went to court to gain his rights. Chief Justice, Roger B. Taney, denied him his freedom, because he believed that slaves were not citizens, only property. He said that African-Americans “"had no rights which the white man was bound to respect.” This caused more tensions between the two sections. SOUTH Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820, setting boundaries at the parallel 36’30.This divided the free and the slave states fairly. The Kansas-Nebraska act of 1854 later repealed the act, when it allowed for popular sovereignty. This angered both sides because of the disruption of slavery among the states. Wilmot Proviso was to ban slavery in any land a part of the Mexican Cession. However, it was denied by the Senate, considering the majority of the senate consisted of Southerners. After a congressional meeting between the North and the South in 1849, the South believed that the North intended to drive them out of New Mexico and California by abolishing slavery. They threatened succession. “If by your legislation, you Northerners seek to drive us from the territories of CA and NM”… ”I am for disunion.” –Robert Toombs, GA. William J. Grayson “The Hireling and The Slave” represented the Southern opposition after Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written. "Safe from harassing doubts and annual fears, He dreads no famine, in unfruitful years" -William J. Grayson A Country is supposed to be unified. With such strong opposing views on such a significant issue, a war was inevitable in America.
SUPPORTING QUOTES "Safe from harassing doubts and annual fears, He dreads no famine, in unfruitful years" -William J. Grayson "At the root of these cultural differences was the ‘problem of slavery’ but the "fundamental assumptions, tastes, and cultural aims" of the two regions were diverging in other ways as well" -Allan Nevins "War appeared to be a stark moral conflict in which the South was clearly to blame, a conflict that arose inevitably as a result of the immorality of slave society" -Causes of the Civil War "With hatred's ardor gathers Newgate spoils and trades for gold the garbage of her toils" -William J. Grayson in “The Hireling And The Slave”
WHY SLAVERY WAS THE PRIME REASON FOR GOING TO WAR. Westward Expansion The need for westward expansion was almost directly correlated with slavery because without the use of slaves, less land would have been needed or the expansion would have been more gradual. It also contributed to sectionalism because some states were not admitted into the Union until an equal territory was added (slave and free states). Without slavery, the expansion would not have been a major issue. “The challenge of slavery, and its possible expansion into the territories, posed to that ideal -- was the principle reason for the conflict" -Causes of the Civil War Economics Without slavery, there would be little to no source of income to the South. The South relied heavily on slaves and the work they did. Although slavery had less to do with the North, some may consider the treatment of hirelings to be the same as or similar to that of slaves in the South. “He too argued that slave laborers were not much worse off than Northern industrial workers, that the institution was already on the road to "ultimate extinction"" -Causes of the Civil War State’s Rights The states’ powers were far greater than the Central Government’s powers due to the admission of Popular Sovereignty. As the states’ amount of power and rights increased, so did tensions and hostilities between the admission or refusal of Slavery into each state. As the States received more rights directly and indirectly, the issue of slavery would create more and more conflict between the states. Poor Political Leadership The Poor Leadership from the Central Government was based around the promotion of popular sovereignty. Stephen A. Douglas was a main contributor to the idea of Popular Sovereignty, which he would present in many of his speeches. Popular Sovereignty increased tensions and caused further sectionalism between the Northern Abolitionists and Pro-Slavery Southerners, but these tensions were based on the permission of slavery. Slavery was the major cause of the civil war. Popular Sovereignty only added fuel to the flame of Slavery.