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History in Review Enlightenment, Types of Governments and Types of Economic Systems.

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1 History in Review Enlightenment, Types of Governments and Types of Economic Systems

2 The Magna Carta (The great charter), 1215 Established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute. Included trial by jury, due process, protection against arbitrary taking of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

3 English Bill of Rights (1689) Severely limited the power of the monarchy.

4 Enlightenment A period of great changes in worldviews in Europe and the British Colonies. Lasted from 1650’s to 1750’s People began to believe that learning came form experience. It was an age of science. Moved away from religion as explanation for power and more to the people

5 Niccolo Machiavelli 1469 – 1527 Lived in Italy He believed a monarchy was the best way to have a government with one person or group with the power. Colonists liked his theory that colonies should have a governing body to rule them.

6 Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) French Wrote that a republic needed three separate branches of government to make sure power is not abused. Executive, Legislative, and Judicial

7 Sovereignty Supreme power. Popular Sovereignty- Idea that people created their government and agreed or consented to be governed by it.

8 Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) Believed people were selfish and would always put their needs before the common good…called these Natural Laws Believed in Social Contract Theory- To prevent constant societal friction Hobbes believed in sovereignty granted to a political authority.

9 John Locke: Key to Democracy Believed in the art of compromise. Believe people have Natural Rights…bestowed on them at birth. Sovereignty did not reside in the state, but in the people. If the ruler did not keep his contract with the people, they could overthrow him (Popular Sovereignty) Belief in Natural Rights: Life, Liberty and property.

10 Keys to Locke Unalienable rights- Rights that cannot be taken away from anyone. For example: Freedom of Speech Equal Rights- The belief that all persons, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, age, etc., have the same rights as everyone else. Limited Government- A government does not have absolute authority. Consent of the Governed- The political theory that governments gain their authority from the people.

11 The problem we all live with by Norman Rockwell “The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which treats everyone equally…Being equal and independent, not one ought to harm another in his life, health, or possessions.” John Locke

12 Flag with Male Symbol by Dave Cutler “The old are apt to lead men into mistakes, as this idea of fatherly power’s probably has done, which seems so eager to place the power of parents over their children wholly in the father, as if the mother has no share in it. Whereas if we consult reason…, we shall find she has an equal title.”

13 June, 1989-Tiananmen Square “Whensoever…the government shall… put into the hands of any other absolute power over the lives, liberty and estates of the people, by this breach of trust they forfeit the power of the people… who have a right to resume their original liberty, and by the establishment of the new government provide for their own safety and security.” John Locke






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