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Migration and development The Road Ahead? Trygve G. Nordby European Migration Network Oslo 18 June 2012 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration and development The Road Ahead? Trygve G. Nordby European Migration Network Oslo 18 June 2012 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration and development The Road Ahead? Trygve G. Nordby European Migration Network Oslo 18 June 2012 1

2 The discourse Does less development lead to more migration? Does more development lead to more migration? Can migration stimulate development? Or is the M&D nexus ruled by the Doris Day principle: “Que sera sera” (whatever will be will be)? More migration than development and more development than Human Rights 2

3 The international process on M&D General scepticism against wider intl. debate Sovereignty and lack of institutions and arenas Global Commission on Intl. Migration 2005 High Level Dialogue in UNGA 2006 Global Forum on Migration and Development, Bru 07, Man 08, Hel 09, Mex 10, Gen 2011, Maur 12 THP Global Hearing on Ref. and Mig. 2012 New High Level Dialogue, UNGA 2013 Sweden 2014, Turkey 2015 3

4 Trends (2012 Hague Global Hearing on Refugees and Migration) Migration will increase - due to demography, economic disparities, climate change, conflict and poor governance Migration has become more complex – blurred distinction between legal-illegal and forced-voluntary Migration is more temporary and circular than before South-south migration is increasing 4

5 Trends (continued) Migration is increasingly an urban phenomenon New technological opportunities Communication, Biometry, etc. More public debate on migration New stakeholders more assertive in the debate: business, big cities But also: Increased negative public mood towards migration 5

6 “Our approach to migration can make us stronger or weaker” “Migration is an opportunity” Cecilia Malmström, EU Commissioner 19.1.20126

7 OperationaI opportunities I Financial support to diasporas' development projects in countries of origin. Better conditions for effect of remittances Training programs designed to prevent negative brain drain Strengthening of migration management structures in countries of origin Facilitating and securing sustainable development in context of return 7

8 Operational opportunities II Increased research and build up of evidence based competencies on M&D Increased cooperation with NGOs, business and diasporas Legal reforms to facilitate increased mobility and circle migration Establishing more bilateral agreements Strengthening of Migrant Rights 8

9 When no M&D synergy appear Conflict of interest between domestic ministries (control, readmission) and development ministries (altruism, country of origin focus)? Difference in professional cultures? Conflict of interest between sending and receiving countries (export of labour vs. control of borders)? Human Rights vs. economic exploitation General xenophobia? 9

10 Assumptions I 1.M&D needs to be defined by migration as well as development actors as a joint program area. 2.Governments need to establish and resource cross departmental Task Forces 3.Need for more evidence based competence on Migration and Development 4.Research institutions, NGOs and diasporas need to be fully involved 10

11 Assumptions II 5.The transnational nature of M&D needs to be fully accepted – politically and legally 6.M&D cannot be advanced by narrow domestic motives of reducing immigration or increasing return to certain developing countries. This may even ditch the process. 7.Migration and development is not a quick fix. This has to be done in a very long term perspective 11

12 Beyond discussion Great potential for enhanced M&D efforts and results in countries of origin and destination Lack of sufficient institutions in countries of origin and destination Lack of internal coherence Great need for evidence based policymaking Insufficient rights regimes to meet the vulnerability of many migrant workers Room for private and social movement actors 19.1.201212

13 Up for discussion Will the concept of “increased mobility” rather than “increased migration” lead to less focus on integration and migrant rights? Could a new UN agency for migration help focus and implementation of M&D? Could biometry give assurance of state control and open up for increased migration? Highly skilled vs. low skill labour migration Who should pick up and throw the dices? 13

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