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Building Models Building Modelling Kaj A. Jørgensen Aalborg University, Department of Production.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Models Building Modelling Kaj A. Jørgensen Aalborg University, Department of Production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Models Building Modelling Kaj A. Jørgensen Aalborg University, Department of Production

2 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 2 Object-Oriented Building Models Aalborg New Concert Hall

3 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 3 Object-Oriented Building Models Computerbaserede bygningsmodeller Jørn Utzon skræller en appelsin Jørn Utzon får geometrien af formen bestemt Forudsætningen for et rationelt byggeri Jørn Utzon skaber sin kunstneriske form 1957 Samtidig begynder det danske montagebyggeri

4 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 4 Object-Oriented Building Models Computeren som regnemaskine Det er 3D - men ren geometri Målsætning og produktionsgrundlag Forudsætningen for et præcist byggeri Computeren muliggør præcis geometri af frie former

5 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 5 Object-Oriented Building Models Komponenten er designet og programmeret hos producenten Det er 3D – med ”Intelligens” Arkitekten tager den ind i sit projekt – og tilpasser den Den parametriske komponent Den tilpassede komponent danner grundlag for producentens fremstilling, styklister, tilbud mv. Arkitektens elektroniske bygningsmodel består således af objekter – så den kan gøres til genstand for simulering af forskellig art

6 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 6 Object-Oriented Building Models Bygningsmodel: Sorthøjparken Aalborg

7 Fundamentals of Building models Analytic models versus synthetic models The object concept Attributes

8 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 8 Object-Oriented Building Models Modelling: two approaches Analytic modelling modelling by abstraction Synthetic modelling realisation of artefacts

9 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 9 Object-Oriented Building Models Modelling: two kinds of models Analytic modelsSynthetic models

10 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 10 Object-Oriented Building Models Synthetic Modelling is the Foundation

11 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 11 Object-Oriented Building Models Synthetic Building Models Modelling is performed as a synthetic model The physical building is constructed from a synthetic model Various representations are necessary on different levels of abstraction on different levels of detail Several domains must be included in the representation building actors and resources activities etc. The building should be modelled for the complete life cycle

12 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 12 Object-Oriented Building Models The Object Concept In the real world objects are living and communicating organisms objects have properties factual properties operational properties - behaviour In data models software objects are representations of real world objects software objects are described by attributes analytic view: classes of objects - members of classes synthetic view: types of objects - objects are instances of types two design levels: the type level and the object level abstraction mechanisms classification and composition can be applied

13 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 13 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Modelling Building CAD tools generally contain Models of physical objects and products is the foundation Walls, columns, beams, openings, etc. Libraries of objects and products Windows, doors, furniture, lamps, etc. An analytic view of the building is often used A number of problems are related to this, e.g. What are rooms? Is a complete front wall one or many objects? How can functional requirements be described? A number of other tools must be used also - model exchange

14 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 14 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Objects – e.g. wall-element Models are built from objects Object properties are specified Geometry Materials Prices

15 Models Generic model component Attributes and structures of sub-components Relationships Modelling matrix

16 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 16 Object-Oriented Building Models Information Modelling: Generic Model Component Model component Living organism - communicating Content: attributes  factual - state  operational - behaviour structures of sub- components  references  collections Encapsulation - attributes can be visible for other systems hidden from other system

17 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 17 Object-Oriented Building Models Data Modelling Fundamentals, cont. References A reference contains the address value of another object Symbol in type diagrams: arrow A reference can be used to represent an oriented relationship between two objects examples: window  wall floor  room building  building complex

18 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 18 Object-Oriented Building Models Data Modelling Fundamentals, cont. Collections Oriented relationship between two object types examples: wall --->> window, room --->> wall Symbol in type diagrams: double-headed arrow Anchor type and body type Identified by a special attribute in the anchor type One-to-many relationships Internal organisation - information structure: static structure - array dynamic/linked structures – standard structures: lists, trees, networks Object typesObjects ? CDsetCDdata ?

19 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 19 Object-Oriented Building Models Dynamic Data Structures - Linked Representations Characteristics - Efficiency Insert and remove operations Retrieval operations – most efficient: search trees Standard structures List structures Single-linked Double-linked Tree structures Binary trees Multi-way trees Networks

20 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 20 Object-Oriented Building Models Model Detailing: Attributes X Structure Identification of attributes Identification of structure

21 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 21 Object-Oriented Building Models Instantiation from Model Component Types Component types Primary content of information models Identification - definition - specification Attributes - name, data type, constraints Relationship types reference types collection types can be defined by special attributes Components Generated from types Indefinite number of instances

22 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 22 Object-Oriented Building Models Representation of Models Fundamental system concepts Abstraction mechanisms Composition Classification Object-orientation Objects with properties and behaviour OO modelling is modelling in multiple dimensions Taxonomies of models are the foundation Objects and relationships are selected from taxonomies Objects have pre-defined sets of properties Model components are interrelated software objects Building models: representing e.g. walls, floors, roofs, windows, doors

23 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 23 Object-Oriented Building Models Representation on Multiple Abstraction Levels is Necessary Proposed logical abstraction levels above the physical level Purpose, the overall purpose or need for the building Use, the user processes Function, the functionalities/features of the building Form, the architectural characteristics Structure, the structural characteristics Components, the building contents Performance, the building performance Dual view Requirements Fulfilment

24 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 24 Object-Oriented Building Models Product Models and The Building Model

25 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 25 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Model and Separate Construction Model Building Model – for the building life cycle Construction Model Building objects Operations, equipment, etc.

26 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 26 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Model and Construction Models Project organisation Project composition – network of activities and operations The building is the basis – additional decomposition necessary Additional objects related to production, not incl. in the building Production equipment Each operation Input: set of objects Output: one or more objects Attributes: use of resources, constraints, etc. The building model must be updated Material consumption, elapsed time, cost, etc.

27 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 27 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Construction Tasks/Operations Relationships between building components and tasks/operations Building components Building componentOperation Wall with opening Window Screws Etc. Wall with opening and window Insertion of window Building components as well as operations and relationships should be defined in the building model

28 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 28 Object-Oriented Building Models Building Model and Construction Model Building Model Storey + S2 Building component + BC1 – BC2 Building component + BC21 – BC22 Building comp. + BC221 – BC222... Extra Parts CX1 CX2 CX3 CX4... Equipment EX1 EX2 EX3 EX4... Construction Model Resources RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4...

29 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 29 Object-Oriented Building Models Quantity Take off and Cost Estimation Example: wall with openings (door and window) Quantities: Length Height Thickness Gross volume Net volume Gross area Net area Length of wall connections Opening width Opening height Length of opening circumference Materials of each layer Activities/jobs Scaffolding Tolls Etc.

30 Aalborg UniversityDepartment of Production Kaj A. JørgensenPage 30 Object-Oriented Building Models Selected references My own papers http://www.iprod.aau.dk/bygit/Web3B/Web3B_files/TechnicalR eports/ReportDraft.pdf www.iprod.auc.dk/~kaj/documents/papers/ProductFamilyMod ellingForConstruction.pdf www.iprod.auc.dk/~kaj/documents/common/SystemConcepts. pdf IAI – International Alliance for Interoperability www.iai-international.org BLIS Project www.blis-project.org www.blis-project.org/~sable

31 The end Thank you


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