Presentation on theme: "Pierre Elliot Trudeau Born in Montreal on October 18, 1919 to an Anglophone mother and Francophone father Rich Montreal family Interests - Skiing - philosophy."— Presentation transcript:
Pierre Elliot Trudeau Born in Montreal on October 18, 1919 to an Anglophone mother and Francophone father Rich Montreal family Interests - Skiing - philosophy - canoeing Scholar and lawyer – became Minister of Justice under Lester B. Pearson Married 23 year old Margaret Sinclair in 1971 Prime Minister of Canada 1968-1979, 1980-1984 Death September 28, 2000
Trudeaumania Many people were attracted to Trudeau - young and old. He was said by people to be athletic,youthful, attractive Drove a sports car He used TV as a great campaigning tool Dressed in casual clothing when talking to the public People voted for Trudeau not only for his platform(which most people may not have understood) but also for his image.
Trudeau and the Americans Believed that we be should less dependent on our relationship with the USA We did many things to reduce American influence such as supporting increased trade and cultural links with Cuba, China, and the Soviet Union
Trudeau and National Unity Trudeau was a French Canadian who became P.M. in 1968 until 1979, then later in 1980-1984 He believed in a strong federal government to keep the nation united Argued that Quebec shouldn't be able to "opt out" of federal-provincial programs Was against the separatist movement in Quebec and believed that the best way to defeat the movement was by making Canada bilingual and bicultural Trudeau felt that Quebecers should be made to feel at home and have equal opportunities throughout Canada
Trudeau and Bilingualism What the Official Languages Act consisted of: The Official Languages Act consists of four main components: English and French are the official languages of Canada and either language can be used in Parliament, federal courts, and federal government offices Both languages should be recognized and used in areas of Canada where there are large minorities of either language, called "bilingual districts" Certain parts of the federal civil service should become bilingual, and promotions will be based on bilingualism All schools in Ottawa, a bilingual district, will offer French and English instruction (teaching)
Bill 101: The Language Issue in Quebec The Parti Quebecois was formed in the 1960s – its reason for existing is to promote sovereignty for Quebec Bill 101 Rene Levesque and the PQ were elected in Quebec, they first instituted Bill 101 Made French the official language of Quebec Made French the only visible language in Quebec All immigrants, including those from other provinces, would have to learn French Only the children of parents that had been educated in English could learn English
1980 Referendum Quebec “sovereignists” thought that Bill 101 did not go far enough and that Quebec should be its own country – its own state based on the French-Canadian nation Levesque called referendum for Quebec seperation wanted “Sovereignty-Association”, an ill-defined arrangement whereby Quebec would have been a sovereign state but retained trade and other economic links with Canada Trudeau promised to reform the Constitution if 'yes' won out May 20, 1980 - referendum day o Final vote: 60% Yes, 40% No. Levesque accepted at defeat but promised "dream" of seperation to come true. Trudeau kept word to change BNA act. The Constitution Act came into being in 1982.
Trudeau and the Constitution History of the Constitution (1) In the Constitution Act, of 1867, the guaranteed rights of Canadian citizens were very limited. In 1960, Diefenbaker's government came up with the Canadian Bill of Rights, that was based on the previous Universal Declaration of Human Rights, of 1948. These bills did not have much gravity, they were taken as casually as a law, and they only applied to federal legislation, and mentioned nothing about languages. Prime Minister Trudeau believed that a constitutional declaration was needed to recognize the rights of Canadian citizens, and the fact that Canada was founded on two distinct language groups (English and French).
Trudeau and the Constitution Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, with Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau signed the Proclamation of the Constitution Act, of 1982, on April 17, 1982. On this day, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became a reality for all Canadians.
Trudeau and the Constitution Its’ creation of the revised Constitution reinforced the fundamental rights and freedoms of Canadians. It fulfilled the dream of past Canadians that had fought to improve the fundamental rights of their fellow Canadians. It finished what Diefenbaker had tried to do with the Bill of Rights (although Dief would have disagreed with a bunch of the things in the Charter)
Main Issues the Charter Deals With: Guarantee of Rights and Freedom Mobility Rights Fundamental Freedoms Democratic Rights Legal Rights Equality Rights Official Languages of Canada Minority Language Educational Rights
Trudeau and the Constitution What the Charter does: Protects important freedoms and rights Limits the ability of the government, to pass laws or take measures (such as the War Act Measures) that are discriminatory or could affect human rights. Canadian courts are responsible for deciding how to handle matters according to the Charter. The Parliament can not "veto" the rights and freedoms promised by the charter Both federal and provincial laws must follow the princples set out in the Charter.
The March of History! Some Things the Charter Doesn't Allow: The government to take discriminatory decisions, even if it may seem for the good of the public. (ex: internment of Japanese- Canadians). Discrimination against women, Aboriginals, and other visible minorities. (remember when it was legal for women to make half the wage of men for the same job, remember when Native Canadians could not vote, when Canadians of Japanese descent were deported) Censorship (thinks about WWII and II and the censorship that occurred) Discrimination on the basis of Religious thought, and belief (remember when religious groups were banned in WWI and WWII)
The Trudeau Era Economy: Prosperity at First Oil in Alberta and Hydro-electric projects in James bay, along with increased government spending create more jobs! Baby boomers start entering the workforce! Increased immigration! More families with 2 incomes! Wages go up! Consumer demand goes up!
Results of these changes GNP goes up! Canadians have more money to spend! Houses and apartments going up in the cities and suburbs! Better social benefits! All of these fuel the Canadian economy. Canada enters a period of prosperity!
The Trudeau Era Economy: Downfall The wave of Canadian prosperity began to come to an end in the 70's for many reasons. Mechanization of various industries left many people unemployed. New jobs were being created in the service industry, but the factory workers were unqualified. SATGFLATION!! Unemployment and inflation at the same time! Very unusual!
The Oil Crisis 1973- Angry at the U.S. support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, OPEC places an embargo against the U.S. and begins to cut oil production and raise oil prices. The price of oil jumped from $6 per barrel to $16 per barrel for Canada 1979- Iran & Iraq go to war. Oil supplies begins to fall. The price jumps from $16 per barrel to $40 per barrel for Canada Gas prices go up! Electricity bills go up!
Results of these problems Fixed income families are devastated by the sudden increase in prices New unions begin to form for teachers, doctors and police. Demands for higher wages leads to more strikes and lockouts. To meet these demands, manufacturers raise prices Provincial and Federal debt begins to pile up. Canada enters stagflation. Canada had many jobs available, consumer demand was very high. This inflation should have led to lower unemployment and, ultimately, deflation. Instead, inflation and unemployment both began to rise
Government intervention Trudeau freezes the Alberta oil prices below world value and would place high tariffs on oil exports to the U.S. He wanted to keep prices low for Canadians. This would lead to much bitterness between Trudeau and workers in the Western Provinces. Trudeau also began a process of "Economic Sovreignty". About 50% of Canadian industries were foreign owned and over 90% of Canadian car and oil manufacturers were U.S. controlled. Trudeau created corporations like the Canadian Development Corporation and Petro-Canada and agencies like the Foreign Investment Review Agency. All with the goal of buying back Canadian companies and forming new ones
Trudeau's Downfall By the late 70's, the Canadian deficit was still soaring while prices continued to increase. Trudeau would create the Anti Inflation Board, who would end up limiting wage and price hikes, leading to much anger from Canadian workers Meanwhile, pensions continued to go up and the tax rate was kept low. Trudeau struggled to find ways to limit government spending without cutting too much out of social benefits for Canadians.