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1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War (Unit III, Segment 1 of 3)

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Presentation on theme: "1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War (Unit III, Segment 1 of 3)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 : Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War (Unit III, Segment 1 of 3)

3 The Sectional Crisis

4 ■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – Was the Civil War inevitable?

5 Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era From , the North & South became vastly different regions “ King Cotton ” had transformed the South into a rural region with slavery, little manufacturing, & few railroads

6 Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era From , the North & South became vastly different regions The North had industrial factories, cities, paid immigrant workers, railroads, & larger population

7 Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation – – : Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise

8 Sectionalism: The first major issue regarding slavery in the antebellum era focused on Missouri becoming a state in 1820: –Northerners & Southerners did not want to upset the equal balance of free & slave states in the Senate –Northerners did not want slavery to spread beyond the “Deep South” –Southerners did not think Congress had the power to stop slavery

9 In 1820, Henry Clay negotiated the Missouri Compromise “ The firebell in the night! ” Missouri became a slave state Maine broke from Massachusetts & became a free state Slavery was outlawed in all western territories above the latitude of 36°30'

10 Sectionalism: In the 1830s, the issue of tariffs divided North & South –Southerners argued that tariffs benefited only the North & made manufactured goods too expensive –John C. Calhoun of SC attempted nullification & threatened secession –President Jackson fought this states’ rights argument

11 Sectionalism: In the 1840s, westward expansion brought the issue of slavery up again: Texas was not annexed for 9 years because statehood would unbalance the number of free & slave states The addition of the Mexican Cession after the Mexican-American War gave Southerners hope that slavery would spread to the Pacific Ocean

12 Sectionalism: In 1850, California asked to enter the Union as a free state: –Southerners did not want more free states & wanted slavery to be allowed in the southwest territories –Northerners wanted to keep slavery out of the SW & wanted other laws to protect runaway slaves who made it to freedom in the North

13 The Compromise of 1850 solved the sectional dispute between North & South California entered as a free state The people of Utah & New Mexico could vote to allow or ban slavery (popular sovereignty) A stronger Fugitive Slave Law was created that allowed Southerners to recapture slaves in the North The slave trade ended in Washington DC

14 The Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, & John Calhoun

15 Sectionalism: From 1820 to 1850, sectionalism in America increased due to –Differences in regional economies & the use of slavery –Westward expansion & the entry of new states to the Union –Growing abolitionism in the North But, each time a dispute threatened the nation, a compromise was reached

16 Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation – – : Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise – – : The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “ morality ” of slavery

17 Sectionalism: Abolitionists & many Northerners despised the Compromise of 1850: –The Fugitive Slave Law allowed runaway slaves (& sometimes “free blacks”) to be recaptured & enslaved –Northerners formed vigilante committees to protect runaways –Abolitionism grew in the North

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19 The Underground Railroad was a network of safe houses to help slaves escape to freedom Harriet Tubman made 19 trips South to lead 300 slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad

20 Sectionalism: In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin –Depicted slavery as a moral evil –Became the best selling book of the 19 th century –Inspired many in the North to join the abolitionist cause "So you're the little lady who started this great war!"

21 Sectionalism: In 1854, Congress passed Stephen Douglas’ Kansas-Nebraska Act –The law used popular sovereignty to give the residents of the territories the right to vote to determine slavery – To do this, Congress repealed (ended) the Missouri Compromise line at 36º30’ in the western territories

22 The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

23 Sectionalism: Northerners were outraged by the Kansas-Nebraska Act: –Congress allowed slavery to spread into an area of the U.S. where slavery was already outlawed –Northerners formed the Republican Party in 1854 & became committed to the “free soil” movement

24 Sectionalism: Popular sovereignty failed to settle the slavery question in the West: –When a vote was held in Kansas in 1855 to decide on slavery, thousands of Missouri residents illegally voted –This illegal vote gave Kansas slavery when its residents voted against it –In 1856, a war began between Kansas & Missouri (“Bleeding Kansas”)

25 Free-soilers from Kansas voted against slavery Thousands of pro-slavery Missouri residents crossed the border & voted for slavery The vote revealed a pro-slavery victory which led to a violent civil war in Kansas “ Bleeding Kansas ”

26 Sectionalism: From 1850 to 1856, sectionalism in America increased due to: –The growth of abolitionism due to the Fugitive Slave Law, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, & the Kansas-Nebraska Act –The birth of regional (not national) political parties like the Republicans Sectional tensions were becoming so bad that compromise was not an option

27 Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation – – : Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise – – : The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “ morality ” of slavery – – : The slave issue became “ irreconcilable ” & led to the Civil War

28 Sectionalism: In 1857, a slave named Dred Scott sued for his freedom after traveling with his master from Missouri to Wisconsin The Dred Scott case presented the Supreme Court with 2 major questions: –Does Congress have the power to decide on slavery in the territories? –Is the Missouri Compromise constitutional?

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30 Sectionalism: In Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), the Supreme Court ruled: – Dred Scott had no right to sue because African Americans were not citizens – Congress did not have the power to stop slavery in western territories so the Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional – Northern abolitionists were furious

31 Sectionalism: In 1858, Democrat Stephen Douglas ran against Republican Abraham Lincoln for the Illinois Senate Lincoln was unknown at the time, but during the campaign he argued that Congress must stop the spread of slavery (free soil argument) Lincoln lost the Senate election, but his argument against slavery made him a popular national figure

32 “ A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. ” -- Abraham Lincoln, 1858

33 Sectionalism: In 1859, abolitionist John Brown led an unsuccessful raid on a federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, VA in an attempt to free slaves in a massive slave uprising –Brown was caught & executed –But he was seen as a martyr by many in the North –Southerners believed Northerners were using violence to end slavery

34 An Ill-fated Raid Raid on Harpers Ferry ■October 1859 ■John Brown / 20 men (5 African Americans) capture Federal Armory [Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now WV)] Goal: arm slaves / promote a slave rebellion “One man and God can overturn the universe.” -- John Brown

35 The Verdict  Guilty! “Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments -- I submit; so let it be done.”-- John Brown

36 A Prediction? John Brown left a haunting note to be read after his execution: “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with Blood. I had as I now think vainly flattered myself that without much bloodshed, it might be done.” Result: 1. South grew less inclined to negotiate and talk peace 2. South began to form militias to protect itself from possible slave insurrections

37 Sectionalism: The Election of 1860 proved to be the final straw for the South: Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln who argued for “ free soil ” & a strong national gov ’ t Democrats in the North & South were split over the issue of slavery Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas who argued for popular sovereignty Southern Democrats nominated John Breckenridge who argued for states rights & the protection of slavery

38 Sectionalism: Lincoln won the election without a single Southern vote Southerners assumed slavery would soon be abolished & began to discuss the possibility of seceding (breaking away) from the USA

39 Sectionalism: In December 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union In 1861, more Southern states seceded & the Civil War between North & South began

40 Sectionalism: From 1856 to 1860, sectionalism in America increased due to: –Slavery became the most important political issue of the time –Growing Southern fears that the North would end slavery (John Brown’s raid, election of Lincoln) No compromises could prevent a Civil War between the North & South

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