2terms: Limited government Representative government 29 government is restricted and not all-powerful.Each individual has rights that government cannot take away.Representative government29 people have a voice in what the government should and should not do.Government of, by, for the people.
3Roots of Government Magna Carta 29 England’s King John forced by nobles and Church to sign in 1215Protect them from arbritrary acts of the monarchIncludesTrial by juryDue process of lawThe monarch does not have absolute power
4Roots of Government Petition of Right, 1628 30 English Parliament requires that Charles I confer with it and get approval or he could not have funds.Limits includedKing had to follow the law of the landNo arbitary arrest or imprisonmentJury trialNo martial law in time of peaceNo quartering of troops without consentNo taxation w/o Parliamentary consent
5Roots of Government English Bill of Rights , new monarch, William had to agree to:give up a standing army in peacetimeAllow free electionsMonarch may make no laws w/o consent of ParliamentNo taxation w/o consent of ParliamentAllow petitions w/o fear of arrestAllow fair trialsAllow freedom from excessive bailAllow no cruel or unusual punishment
6Roots of Government Charter colonies Bicameral 31 Connecticut and Rhode Island were allowed by the monarch to be self-governing.Bicameral31 The legislature had two lawmaking groups in Royal colonies:Upper house: selected by the monarchlower house: selected by voting males
7Roots of Government Proprietary colonies 32 run by a private owner: Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.The owner appointed the governor, not the monarch
8Toward Independence Boycott 37 refusal to buy or sell certain products or services (often for political or social reasons).American rebels told the people not to buy English goods and make their own. This was illegal.Popular sovereignty39 government has power only because the people allow it to
9Brief ReviewWhat do the Magna Carta, Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights all have in Common? (2)They control the power of the kingThey strengthen the power of the popular legislature.What is the idea called where the government is given its power by the citizens?Popular sovereignty
10The Critical Period Articles of Confederation The plan that allowed the United States an organized government to fight Britain during the revolution.States cooperated to fight the British, they allowed the central government toBorrow moneyPost officeNavyArmy from the coloniesStandards of weights and measuresSettle interstate disputesMake warMake treatiesSet up a money system
11EC: The Critical Period States refused to give up many of their own powers during and after the revolution.Any changes to the Articles of Confederation needed unanimous agreement by all 13 states.New national laws required 9 out of 13 states approvingEC: Congress could not (3)taxRegulate commerceMake the states obey any of its laws
12The Constitution Virginia Plan 51 the US government would have three branchesThe legislature—Congress—would be bicameralLower house would be electedUpper house would be chosen by the Lower House.the executive and judiciary chosen by CongressCongress could force uncooperative states to obeySmall states opposed it because they got fewer votes in the legislature.
13The Constitution’s Keepers Connecticut Compromise(The Great Compromise)52 Bicameral CongressSenate = states equal in votesHouse of Representatives = states’ votes depend on free population
14The Constitution’s Keepers Three-Fifths Compromise52 Way to count non-free persons, in states with few free persons
15EC: Review Why were Americans so used to expecting democracy? Ran their many own coloniesWhy weren’t the Articles of Confederation effective to run the United States?The states were not required to obey the national government.
16The Constitution’s Keepers Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise53 Congress could notTax exportsRegulate the slave trade for 20 yearsInterfere with migration or importation of slavesCould impose a small tax
17Ratification Federalists Anti-Federalists 56 favored ratification of the ConstitutionStrong central governmentAnti-Federalists56 against ratification of the ConstitutionStrong state governmentsWeak central governmentWanted more religionWanted more individual rights
18RatificationQuorum58 number of delegates required at a vote to make it legal.George Washington’s election as president, in 1789, was postponed until enough were present to count the electoral votes.John Adams won the second most votes and became vice president
20Chapter 2 pp conceptsEngland’s American Colonies: types of government…..31 though different in type, they all were based on basic ideas of English law and governance.
21Toward IndependenceDescribe the evolution of the first American government before our actual independence.34-7 since 1607, being so far from England, colonial legislatures ran most of the affairs of their people.After the French and Indian War, (1763), Parliament tried to take control away from them.
22Toward Independence EC: Colonies work together for the first time The Albany Plan of Union was a first effort to get the colonies to work together on trade and security, 1754EC: The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 brought united effort to deal withthe unfair British taxes.EC: The First Continental Congress, 1774, united delegates to petition the King and Parliament forfairness and representation.
23Toward IndependenceAfter shooting had started with the British, in 1775, the Second Continental Congress united the colonial delegates to declare their independence and make plans to fight the British military.The Second Continental Congress is therefore the first national government of what will be called the United States of America.EC: The Continental Congress was a federation or a confederation?Confederation.
24Ideals listed in the Declaration of Independence 38 all men are created equalEC: Born with unalienable rights (3)LifeLibertyPursuit of happinessGovernments serve men to protect those rightsA government that fails the people may be changed or abolished.
25The ConstitutionEC: What were two big issues at the US Constitutional Convention in 1787?State representationBig states v. small statesCounting slaves for representationLimited GovernmentSeparation of powers
26EC Finally, they wanted to declare before the world that What were the reasons for the writing and signing of the Declaration of Independence?EC 38 first they wanted todescribe the ideal principles of free people anywhere.EC Next, they wanted tolist complaints against the monarchy of Britain showing how the king had acted against the free people and tried to enslave themEC Finally, they wanted to declare before the world thatthey had tried to work with their government fairly, and had no other choice but to leave it.
27Toward IndependenceEC: What is the most common feature of state constitutions?39 the most common feature is limited government,EC: Other commonalities include (3)Popular sovereignty.Civil rights and libertiesSeparation of powers/checks and balances
28Mount Vernon and Annapolis Meetings (1785, 1786) 46 The meetings brought up issues with the national government that made leaders feel the need to do what?:This would lead to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
29What influenced the framers of the Constitution? EC 48 Writings by European Enlightenment thinkers (4)John LockeVoltaireBaron de MontesquieuJean Jacques RousseauIdeas from the Articles of ConfederationState constitutions
30Ben Franklin’s opinion of the US Constitution Though 81, and very ill, he managed to attend a few meetings.p. 35 he spoke of the need to be strongly united and in agreement against an enemy like Britain.
31E/W, p. 29How might the right to petition, first granted in the English Bill of Rights, prevent abuse of power by a monarch?Without the basic rights established by the Magna Carta and later English bills, the idea of restricted government might not evolve.
326, p. 39Why did the first state constitutions share several common features?They were all based on the ideals that had united the states in their fight for independence.Limited governmentWhat was the colonial slogan about limited government? EC“No taxation without representation!”All the colonies were English to begin with.
336, p. 45“The thirst for independence made the new states wary of strong central government” -- textHow is this caution reflected in the weaknesses built into the US Articles of Confederation?The Articles do not provide for any elements of a strong central government, including….An executiveThe power to taxRegulating commerce
3412 p. 49 EC: The Framers (not their names) The delegates sent by the states to create a Constitution.What backgrounds did the selected framers share?LawAgricultureBusinesspolitics
35The Constitution 1/23The New Jersey Plan, like the Virginia Plan, pointed out one major worry:how will states be represented?Population?Financial power?Equality?
36R, p. 52US Slavery, 1790,Why did the southern states want slaves counted in their states’ total population?Slave-owning states could have a higher number of representatives.A tax was imposed for every “other person” so counted.
37The Federalist (Papers) Powerful arguments about the Constitution written in New York byAlexander Hamilton,James Madison,and John Jay.