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From sakoku to empire. Domestic reformRevision of treaties Foreign Policy goalsLine of sovereignty Meiji Restoration.

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Presentation on theme: "From sakoku to empire. Domestic reformRevision of treaties Foreign Policy goalsLine of sovereignty Meiji Restoration."— Presentation transcript:

1 From sakoku to empire

2 Domestic reformRevision of treaties Foreign Policy goalsLine of sovereignty Meiji Restoration

3  Treaty of Kanagawa opens up two ports to Western powers  This was followed by a series of unequal treaties  1858 treaty of Edo was a blow to the power of the Shogun and led to the eventual downfall of the Shogunate  1864 Confrontations between the British and Choshu clan and the Shogun is forced to intercede  1868 downfall of the Shogun, the Meiji Restoration

4 Japan’s foreign policy goals  The Emperor is a figurehead with little or no control over foreign policy  Aim of the Oligarchs: to rid Japan of the Unequal treaties  A search for security and removal of the western restriction on Japanese sovereignty  Foreign policy success hinged on success of domestic reform

5  Attempts to invade Korea in 1863 were cancelled  This was partly responsible for the Satsuma rebellion in 1878  1867 Japan creates a ‘situation’ in Japan, an example of ‘gunboat diplomacy’ whereby Korea is forced to sign the Treaty of Kanghwa – an unequal treaty  Attempt to take Taiwan fails.  Japan sent a mission to China in 1870 to secure an Unequal treaty, it failed but at least secured a treat y of friendship which placed Japan and China on an equal footing, diplomatic representation…etc

6  In the 1870’s Japan begins a more assertive foreign policy albeit under the watchful eyes of western powers  Japan begins expansion to the North…beyond Hokkaido  To secure diplomatic recognition of the new northern border, in 1875 Japan signed a treaty with Russians. Japanese claims over Hokkaido accepted in return for abandonment of Japanese claims over Sakhalin

7  Taiwan invaded in 1874 to punish Taiwanese fisherman for their attacks on Ryukyu Islands  Taiwan accepted suzerainty of China but also accepted to be as vassal of the Satsuma  In 1874 China recognized Japan’s claims to Taiwan and agreed to pay an indemnity  In 1879 Ryukyu islands annexed by Japan

8  Wanted to do to Korea what the US had done to Japan  Pretext: Korea attacks the crew of a Japanse survey boat  Gunboat despatched to establish normal diplomatic and trade relations  Korea chose negotiation over war and signed the Treaty of Kanghwa  Recognised Korea as an independent sovereignty ▪ Diplomats exchanges ▪ 3 Korean ports opened Pusan, Ichon and Wonsan

9  Japanese foreign policy becomes more aggressive  Japan sees Korea as its zone of expansion  It tries to minimize China’s influence on Korea  In 1882 it gets involved in Korea when the refoms of Kojong affect the army  1884 Japan tries to engineer another coup but fails  In 1884 Japan signs the Convention of Tientsin or the Li-Ito convention  China maintains its troops in Korea, and the resident is Yuan Shih Kai  A foreign policy failure for Japan

10  Japan seen as the role model for the reform faction  Japan chose to support this, Japans minister in Korea was involved  Japan deliberately chose to antagonise China  It was a way for the Japanese government to divert attention away from domestic tenisons  Russian presence in Manchuria also worried the Japanese

11  Yamagata felt Japan needed to play an assertive role  He saw Russia as the threat and not China  He saw in victory a chance to abrogate the Unequal treaties  Also it would prove to be a test for the new national army

12  Korea the prize for Japan and China  Korea is also targeted by Russia who sees it an area to gain access to the Pacific Ocean  Murder of Kim Ok Kyun also raised tensions  Tonghak rebellion in Korea a factor that led the Chinese to take action to quell the rebellion  Japan protested and used this to attack China  China defeated on land and in the naval battle

13  Ito in a hurry to negotiate  War had cost Japan financially  So Japan in a hurry to negotiate  Treaty in April 1895  Korea’s independence recognized by China  Formosa  Liaotung Peninsula of China  80 m Yen as war indemnity  MFN status for Japan in China

14  Marks the beginning of Japan’s dominance in East Asia and the beginning of the end of China’s dominance  Japan had clearly come of age.  Japan was not yet in control but clearly a contender here  The other contender was Russia and Japan was not yet strong enough to deal with Russia

15  Russia was intervening in this region for political gain and GB was suspicious of Russia  GB ambiguous about Japan’s role here vis-a-vis Russia  USA was involved in the region too..Hawaii and the Philippines  Germany wanted an empire and was willing to grab lands in China and also because it wanted to weaken the newly formed Russia and French alliance against it  GB wanted to preserve the integrity of China as it had been there the longest and had investments in China  Japan wanted to be regarded as an equal of the great powers and also gain lands at the cost of a weak China

16  Japanese public were furious  Felt cheated and let down by its politicians  The public did not recognize that the war was a huge drain on Japan’s resources  This impact led to some instability in Japanese politics

17  By 1895 GB began to see Japan as a pawn against Russia  Russia did not want to see Japan in mainland China  IN this Russia had the support of other European powers. Each was uneasy at Japan’s power  Russia, France and Germany joined in the Triple Intervention a week after Shimonoseki had been signed  Japan had to give up the Liaotung Peninsula. It wanted Port Arthur but failed to keep it  Japan not strong enough to take on three powers

18  Despite Triple Intervention, Japan recognised as a rising power  The balance of power in East Asia began to shift  Russia and Japan now in China  Domestically TI sparked off a huge protest  They saw the TI as yet another humiliation

19  Japan wanted to weaken China further, hence it encouraged the Hundred Days Reform in China and gave asylum to its leaders when the reform collapsed  Was willing to support western powers to quell the Boxer rebellion  This gave it the much needed recognition as an equal of the western powers  Alliance with GB

20 Phase 2 of Japan’s Foreign policy


22  Russian view that China would fall to the Russians  Russia would build its railway and Port Arthur would be its Pacific terminus  Russia preferred to have China and leave Korea to Japan  Japan especially Ito favoured peace with Japan and therefore compromise  Japan’s confused policy of this period a result of its tumultous politics

23  Anger at Triple Intervention  Confirmation of Japanese rights over Korea  Nishi Rosen agreement only recognized Korea’s independence and non interference in Korea’s affairs  British occupation of Weihaiwei provided Japan with an ally  Increasingly Britain seen as an ally in its fight with Russia

24  Drift towards an alliance with England  Britain recognizes Japan’s right to Taiwan in return for occupation of Weihaiwei  Also during this time US occupies Hawaii and thus stakes a claim as a Pacific power, Japan accepts this  Likewise Japan accepts American control of the Philippines

25  In 1900 Russia acquire Masampo from Korea and this angered Japan  In the Boxer Rebellion, Japan deliberately supported England, in the hope that Russia alone could not do much mischief  Thus with Japanese meddling it was an allied force that led the fight against the Boxers  Germany wants Russia to be busy, so that French Russian alliance is weakened  GB does not want China to be partitioned

26  Splits in the political parties  Okuma withdraws from Kenseito  New party called Kenseihonto is set up  Yamagata Aritomo becomes PM and there is a return to genro influence  Yamagata no friend of political parties and struggled to limit their influence  Key members of cabinet. from army and navy  Senior members of govt. to be selected by exam system  Yamagata marks the beginning of the patronage that is so typical of Japanese politics

27  Yamagata allinace with Kenseito worked  Patronage system helped to secure military defence budgets  Yamagata did this because he was certain that Russia was a major menace  Japan wanted rights to build railways in Korea more to prevent Russia from doing so

28  Aid to Allied efforts to deal with Boxers in China to prevent anti Japan coalition  Japan was clearly planning empire and power  China and its plight did not figure in Japan’s calculations  Japanese felt that they must have recognition from Western powers  US and GB Open Door Policy not popular with Japan because it did not get much indemnity payment

29  Russians had manoeuvred themselves into Northern Manchuria and occupied it  This annoyed the Japanese who wanted to contain Russia  However in Japan the party politics intervened  Yamagata afraid that Ito would negotiate with Russia in return for Korea  Also Japan afraid that once the Railway was built Russia too strong for Japan to fight  Also Japan saw GB as an ally  So Japan now protested the treaty with China, Russia backed down

30  Japan capitalised on growing Russiana nd British tensions  In London negotiations were opened  The treaty that followed was that each was to remain neutral in the event of a fight, but if two or more were involved then the alliance would work  Marked the end of unequal treaties  Recognition of Japan’s military and naval prowess  Recogniton of Japanese imperial aims  Japan now has great power status

31  Became the mainstay of Japanese diplomacy for 20 years  Recognition of Japan on the international stage  Gave Japan the security to engage in serious negotiations with Russia and stand up to them  Russians underestimated Japan, the genro favoured caution while the younger generation wanted action  In 1904 Japan attacked…the horrors of the war are dwarfed by the scale of WW 1

32  In 1903 Russia refused to withdraw troops from Manchuria  Japan makes a Korea-Manchuria exchange offer  Russia’s railway now complete, next plan to connect Vladivostok with Seoul  Russia then proposed a division of Korea along 39 th parallel  Russia meantime continued to fortify Manchuria and placed battleships in port of Niuchuang  Russia occupies Mukden  Japan tries to negotiate by offering Yalu river as a boundary between Japan and Russian interests

33  Japan had to placate UK and US who wanted no division of China  Russia was not expecting Japan to fight back  Japan attacked Port Arthur  China remained neutral  Mukden fell to Japan  Japanese leaders aware that they could not sustain a long drawn out war  Japan sealed the war with the defeat of the Russian Baltic fleet in the Battle of the Tsushima Straits In

34  Theodore Roosevelt of USA keen to negotiate peace  Japan financially exhauated but did not want to have that revealed  The treaty consolidated Japanese influence on the Asian continent  Russia recognizes Japanese influence in Korea  Japan received southern Sakhalin, Liaotung peninsula, and the raliway line between Mukden and Port Arthur  Japan came of age. This was a sigificant and decisive victory for Japan

35  1905 Ito negotiated with the Korean court for a protectorate  Japanese took charge of Korea’s diplomatic efforts  Japanese advisors despatched to Korea  Japanese settlers poured into Korea too

36  Sino Japanese war marked the position of the Emperor as the country’s paramount military leader  In 1904 too, the Emperor played a visible role as war leader  Military victory first over China and Russia fed a new surge of national pride  Feeling that ‘Japan’ had joined the ranks of the civilized

37  Japanese attitudes towards its neighbours changed too…arrogance towards China and Korea  Japanese began to disavow Chinese heritage  However, failure of massive gains in the treaty of Portsmouth angered the Japanese and this led to serious rioting  Growing feeling in Japan was in a positions to help its backward neighbours

38  The treaty marked Japan as a regional power and as a major player  The establishment of formal empire had begun with the process of acquiring Taiwan, Acquisition of Southern Sakhalin and finally a protectorate over Taiwan

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