Presentation on theme: "Why did American Colonists want to free themselves from Great Britain"— Presentation transcript:
1 Why did American Colonists want to free themselves from Great Britain Unit One: Lesson SixWhy did American Colonists want to free themselves from Great Britain
2 Essay QuestionsHow did both classical republicans and the natural rights philosophers influence the Founders’ views about government?What are the essential differences between classical republicanism and natural rights philosophy?Why do both classical republicans and natural rights philosophers stress the need for education and preparation for citizenship?What are the fundamental characteristics of a constitutional government?In what ways does constitutional government mean limited government?Describe at least three provisions of the Constitution that provide a means of preventing the abuse or misuse of governmental power. Explain how these provisions work in our system of government today.What effect did colonial experiences have on the Founders’ views about rights and government?In what ways were 18th century American and British societies similar or dissimilar in terms of the rights of individual liberty, equality of opportunity, and property?How did early state constitution reflect colonial experiences as well as the ides of classical republicanism and natural rights philosophy?
3 Vocabulary Capitalism Feudalism Republic Charter Indentured Servant Rule of LawChecks and Balances Limited Government Social Contract TheoryCivic Virtue Natural Rights SovereigntyCommon Good Parliament VetoConstitution Precedent Writ of Assistance
4 Key Ideas Things learned from Ancient and British History Limited vs. Unlimited GovernmentTypes of ConstitutionsClassical Republicanism vs. Natural Rights TheorySocial Contract/Consent of the GovernedPrivate vs. Public MoralityFeudalismCapitalismAge of Enlightenment/Education affects thinkingMagna Carta/Petition of Rights/English Bill of RightsHabeas Corpus/Trial by JuryMayflower CompactLegislative SupremacyKey Documents in British History that shifted power from KingRight to Vote/Landownership connected WHY?Written guarantees in colonial documentsBritish policies towards Colonies that push colonists toward independenceMajor Objections to British policies by the colonistsDeclaration of Independence (basic ideas and arguments)Basic Ideas in the new State Constitutions4 Key Concepts (Higher Law, Popular Sovereignty, Legislative Supremacy, Checks and Balances)
5 How did British Policy Change Towards the Colonies? Generations of colonists had grown used to little interference from the British government in their affairsSeveral factors will change thatLarge debts incurred in the Seven Years War (French and Indian War)Heavy Pressure to reduce taxes at home in EnglandColonists taxes less to offset the hardships they facedIncreased control by Crown (Proclamation Act of 1763)Illegal to settle lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. Too expensive to protect settlersThe Stamp Act increased British government control over tradeImposed duties (tax) on documents needed to do trades1st Quartering Act in the colonies in 1774Required colonists to shelter troops
6 Why did Colonists resist British Control? While some accepted new taxes and other controls, others did notNew taxes not only meant some colonists would lose money, it also went against what the colonists had come to believe about representative governmentJohn Locke had written:“ The supreme power cannot take from any man part of his property without his own consent that is, the consent of the majority, giving it either by themselves or their representatives chosen by them.”Colonists believed taxes could only be placed upon them by the assemblies they had electedNO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
7 Why did Colonists resist British Control? Sons of Liberty formed of those set on resisting the actions of the British governmentResisted ViolencePolitical Agitation designed to encourage crowd actionStamp Act Congress to organize resistanceUsed boycotts to make their pointParliament repealed the Stamp Act but passed the DECLARATORY ACT asserting Great Britain’s full power over the coloniesThe Townsend ActsNew taxes on tea, paper, and glassDaughters of LibertyNew boycotts of English goodsUrges colonists to become economically independent from England
8 Why did Colonists resist British Control? Parliament gave new power to revenue officialsWrit of Assistance gave officials broad authority to search and seize colonial propertyColonists charged with various crimes were transported to Nova Scotia or England for trials that were often delayedBritish troops were sent to the colonies to aid in the collection of taxesThe Boston Massacre5 colonists killed when British troops fired on protestors throwing snowballs and rocks at themThis incident convinced many colonists their government was willing to use force against them to force their obedience
9 How did the Colonists organize to resist British control? Committees of Correspondence (CofC) – organized and publicized colonial opposition (1st Continental Congress)By fall of 1774, 12 of 13 colonies (not georgia) sent representatives to meet and decide what needed to be doneVoted to ban colonial trade with Great Britain to force them to change their policiesEngland saw this action as irresponsible defiance and ordered the arrest of the leaders of the CofC. Saw as an act of TREASONLeaders were already preparing for war against EnglandThey believed it was the right of the people to overthrow an unresponsive government that was not protecting their rightsThey formed a civilian militia called the MINUTEMENOn April19, British troops marched on Concorde to arrest the leaders (Sam Adams & John Hancock)Paul Revere & William Dawes alerted the colonists to the approaching British troopsAdams and Hancock escaped, the Minutemen pushed back to British troops “The Shot Heard Round the World”
10 The Purpose of the Declaration of Independence November 1775 – the King officially declared the colonies in rebellion and withdrew his protectionWinter – Thomas Paine’s pamphlet “COMMON SENSE” turned colonial opinion towards independenceBy Spring 1776 – it seemed independence the only solution to the concerns of the colonistsContinental Congress commissioned Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of IndependenceThe D of I renounced the monarchy itself and stated that the sovereignty was with the people
11 What’s in the Declaration of Independence Natural RightRights are self-evident, are unalienable (higher law)If the government violates these rights, they should be changedHuman EqualityAll men are created equal (not given right to rule by birth)Right to Rule must be based on agreement or compactGovernment by ConsentPeople will agree to be ruled by a government that protects their rights“A Long List of Abuses”King George III violated the compact with his people by depriving them of their rights “Absolute Tyranny”Right of Revolution* “Whenever any form of government becomes destructive of those ends for which government is created, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it”
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