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CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION

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Presentation on theme: "CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION"— Presentation transcript:

1 CIVIL WAR & RECONSTRUCTION
U.S. HISTORY & GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 1 LESSONS 4 – 5

2 MANIFEST DESTINY Idea that god had bestowed the entire continent to the Americans Caused massive expansion west to Pacific Ocean & Mexican Territory Santa Fe Trail – Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM Oregon Trail – Independence, MO to Portland, OR Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) - Utah

3 Joseph Smith Brigham Young

4 OREGON & TEXAS Oregon territory divided on 49th parallel between Britain & U.S. Creates WA, OR, ID Mexico gains independence from Spain. Offers land to American farmers American farmers want to be part of U.S. Mexico refuses to sell TX Stephen Austin attempts to settle things only to be imprisoned by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Battle of Alamo – 187 killed, few women & children survived Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna. Forms Republic of Texas “The Lone Star Republic”

5 Stephen Austin The Alamo Sam Houston Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

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7 WAR WITH MEXICO President Polk supports TX & sends General Zachary Taylor to defend it American blood spilt on American soil. American forces capture Mexican cities Colonel Stephen Kearny & John C. Fremont claim New Mexico & the Republic of California where they hoisted a flag that featured a grizzly bear Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey, Mexico. Winfield Scott captures Veracruz & Mexico City James Polk Zachary Taylor John Slidell

8 WAR WITH MEXICO Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Rio Grande is border for TX, NM & CA go to U.S. $15 million paid for south CA, NV, NM, UT, AZ, CO, & WY Gadsden Purchase: current borders for lower 48 states Wilmot Proviso: slavery should not exist in any territory acquired from Mexico. Favored by Northerners

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10 SLAVERY & WESTWARD EXPANSION
James Marshall Popular Sovereignty California Gold Rush – skips territorial phase & push to be admitted as a state Compromise of 1850: CA = free, South = Fugitive Slave Law, BOTH = popular sovereignty Fugitive Slave Act: easier to capture runaways; assisting alleged fugitives = $1k fine, imprisonment for 6 months, or both

11 SLAVERY & WESTWARD EXPANSION
Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman – slave conductor Harriett Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin Stephen A. Douglas – offers each provision of Compromise of 1850 separately & they pass

12 CRISIS OF KANSAS Douglas wants to build a railroad but needs to get Nebraska Territory admitted to union. Willing to repeal Missouri Compromise Kansas-Nebraska Act: two states – NE & KS; popular sovereignty rule in effect to decide slavery issue Proslavery vs. Anti-slavery in KS – voting fraud “Sack of Lawrence” John Brown – abolitionist; Pottawatomie Massacre

13 POLITICAL & SECTIONAL DIVISIONS
Charles Sumner’s vs. Senator Butler, SC – SEE POLITICAL CARTOON PG. 60 Whig party divided on slavery issue American Party: anti-Catholic, “Know-nothing” party, divided on slavery Free-Soil Party: opposed expansion of slavery Liberty Party: abolitionists who wanted slavery ended by passing laws Republican Party: antislavery Democrats, discontented Northern Whigs, & Free-soilers.

14 DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD Dred Scott is a slave who sued for freedom as his owner died & he lived for 4 years in IL Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney’s decision: Scott was not a citizen, but property Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional as it violated citizen’s rights under 5th amendment

15 UNION DISSOLVES John Brown attempts to arm slaves to end slavery by raiding Harper’s Ferry Lincoln-Douglas debates – 6 debates all on issue of slavery

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18 UNION DISSOLVES Freeport Doctrine: any territory could exclude slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting & enforcing them Lincoln wins the presidential election of 1860 Secession: Southern states leave the union beginning with SC. Followed by MI, FL, AL, FA, LA, & TX Confederate States of America (Confederacy) is formed

19 UNION ADVANTAGES Strong naval tradition Industrialization - factories
Railroads Instant communication – telegraph Immigrants providing labor Population Food production

20 CONFEDERACY ADVANTAGES
Strong military leadership – first rate generals Rivers for transportation Profit from cotton Motivated soldiers defending homeland

21 FORT SUMTER Lincoln’s dilemma: reinforce it or retreat.
Jefferson’s dilemma: do nothing or attack the fort Sumter is attacked on April 12, 1861 VA secedes from Union after Sumter’s fall Richmond becomes capital of Confederacy May 1861: AS, TN, & NC secede MD, KY, DE, MI remain in Union but many will fight for Confederacy Jefferson Davis

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23 FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN
Union’s Plan (Anaconda Plan): blockade of southern ports, control of Mississippi River, & capture Richmond Bull Run (Manassas Junction): July 21, 1861. Both sides were inexperienced Total chaos for Union Lincoln appoints George McClellan to lead the Army of the Potomac

24 An 1861 cartoon map illustrating Gen. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda plan.
Credit: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C. (Digital File Number: g3701s cw

25 First Bull Run General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson - Confederacy

26 WAR IN THE WEST General Ulysses S. Grant: captures Fort Henry (TN River), Fort Donelson (Cumberland River), & Shiloh. Grant only accepts unconditional surrender David Farragut: seizes New Orleans, Baton Rouge, & Natchez. Ironclads: metal ships. Monitor (Union) vs. Merrimack (Confederacy) ends in a stalemate

27 Fort Donelson

28 IRONCLADS

29 WAR IN THE EAST Seven Days’ Battle – June 25 to July 1, 1862: Lee defends Richmond from McClellan Second Battle of Bull Run – Aug. 29/30, 1862: Lee moves against Washington D.C. Battle of Antietam – Sept. 17, 1862: bloodiest single day. Over 26k died. McClellan would be fired for not chasing Lee’s battered men General Robert E. Lee

30 Seven Days’ Battle

31 Battle of Antietam

32 Sunken Road Photos taken by Matthew Brady

33 EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
Lincoln disliked slavery but did not believe govt. could abolish it where it already existed Lincoln uses constitutional war powers to institute proclamation Emancipation Proclamation: Goes into effect January 1, 1863 Only applied to areas BEHIND Confederate lines, outside Union control Allows for free blacks to serve Union army (Massachusetts 54th)

34 THE POLITICS OF WAR Trent Affair: attempt by South to “test” Britain’s neutrality & to gain their assistance. Captain Charles Wilkes (Union) arrested James Mason & John Slidell (Confederate) who were aboard a British ship Trent. Britain moved 8K troops to Canada. Lincoln freed the men stating that Wilkes acted without orders. James Mason Capt. Charles Wilkes John Slidell

35 POLITICAL OF WAR Lincoln deals with dissent by:
suspending habeas corpus rights Seizes telegraph offices Davis would deal with dissent in the same manner Conscription riots plagued both Union & Confederacy

36 AFRICAN AMERICANS North: Former slaves would serve Union army (Massachusetts 54th); still suffer discrimination Fort Pillow, TN: Confederates massacred over 200 African American prisoners & whites who were with them South: considered drafting them; they would engage in sabotage

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38 ECONOMIC CONDITIONS DURING THE WAR
South: plantation system weakened; shortages in manpower, food-growing causing food prices to rise, loss of slaves, Union blockade of ports North: industries boomed, corruption in industry, work force of whites dwindled but they would be replaced by African Americans & women, wages did not keep up with cost of living

39 TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR
May 1863: Lee defeats the North at Chancellorsville. General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson is shot by accident by Confederate soldiers, loses his left arm, & later dies of Pneumonia on May 10. Lee continues to press onward into Gettysburg, PA.

40 TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR
Vicksburg a year long siege surrenders on July 4, 1863

41 TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR
Gettysburg: 3 full days of fighting. Starts July 1, Fighting finally stops & on July 4 the dead are accounted for Day 1: Confederates go into town looking for shoes run in John Buford’s cavalry. Confederates take the town Day 2: Confederates attack Cemetery Ridge from Seminary Ridge going through orchard & wheat field. Huge loss of life. Union takes control of Little Round Top Day 3: artillery barrages for most of morning. Lee advances during silence. Lee retreats

42 Culp’s Hill – Day 2

43 TURNING POINTS OF WAR Total loss of life at Gettysburg:
North – 23k killed or wounded South – 28k killed or wounded Gettysburg Address: November 1863 land dedicated to soldiers who died. Over 100 are still not identified Lincoln’s 10-minute speech where he focuses on the U.S. as a WHOLE & defined what the U.S. IS

44 THE WAR ENDS Ulysses S. Grant appointed over Potomac Army
“Wilderness” Campaign “March to the Sea” Lincoln wins second term Petersburg, VA – final battle Appomattox Courthouse – Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865

45 “March to the Sea” William Tecumseh Sherman

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47 APPOMATOX COURTHOUSE

48 RESULTS OF WAR Political: Economic:
Government exerts national authority Secession never used again Income tax Currency Conscription State’s rights exerted in other forms Economic: National railroad Federal Banks North: profit, $ to invest, new technology South: 40% of livestock gone, lack of farm machinery, railroads destroyed, uncultivated land

49 RECONSTRUCTION 1865 – 1877 – refers to rebuilding of the South & readmission of Confederate States Lincoln’s 10% plan Pardon for all Confederate soldiers except high-ranking ones as long as they sword allegiance to Union Once 10% did this then state could reform government & gain representation in U.S. Congress

50 RECONSTRUCTION “Radical” Republicans opposed Lincoln’s plan. Believed that Reconstruction belonged to Congress. Wade-Davis Bill – puts Reconstruction in hands of Congress. Lincoln uses “pocket” veto Charles Sumner Thaddeus Stevens

51 LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION
Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865 John Wilkes Booth: Sic Semper Tyrannis (“Thus be it to tyrants”) Lincoln’s dies April 15, 1865 John Wilkes Booth

52 ANDREW JOHN’S RECONSTRUCTION
Amnesty for all former citizens except former confederate officials & wealthy planters State had to officially withdraw secession Swear allegiance to Union Annul Confederate war debts Ratify the 13th Amendment

53 CONGRESS’ ATTITUDE Refused to admit new Southern legislators
Freedmen’s Bureau Act Civil Rights Act of 1866 Johnson will veto both acts Moderate & Radical Republicans will now work together against Johnson, re-passing both bills Reconstruction Act 1867: 5 military districts TN admitted as they ratified 13th & 14th amendments States had to ratify 13th & 14th amendments & guarantee African Americans the right to vote Tenure of Office Act: used to impeach Johnson

54 Freedman’s Bureau

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60 RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS
13TH Amendment: PERMANENT freedom to African Americans in ALL states. 14th Amendment: every person born or naturalized in the U.S. as citizens of the country & were entitled to equal protection under the law & no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process. 15th Amendment: right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude

61 Fourteenth Amendment

62 "One Less Vote." The Fourteenth Amendment, granting black men the right to vote, was ratified in July Every black vote became a threat to white Southerners' political power. The stone reads, "Negroe Killed, Seymour Ratification, KKK."

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64 SOUTH DURING RECONSTRUCTION
Slave’s challenges: understanding freedom, movement, jobs, education, families. Hiram Revels – 1st U.S. Congressional Senator. 15 others will serve in House of Representatives Physical & economic devastation Public works programs Scalawags Carpetbaggers “40 acres & a mule” Sharecropping Tenant farming

65 Carpetbaggers

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67 Carpetbaggers

68 GRANT ADMINISTRATION Ku Klux Klan Enforcement Acts of 1870
Credit Mobilier Whiskey Ring Secretary of War Belknap Panic of 1873 Greenbacks Specie Resumption Act 1875

69 Fraud in Grant’s Administration

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71 U.S. SUPREME COURT CASES Slaughterhouse Cases 1873: 14th Amendment protected rights of people by virtue of their citizenship. Most Americans basic civil rights were obtained through citizenship in a state & amendment did NOT protect those rights U.S. v. Cruikshank 1876: 14th amendment did NOT give federal government right to punish individuals who oppressed blacks U.S. v. Reese 1876: 15th amendment did NOT ‘confer the right of suffrage’ on anyone BUT simply stated grounds on which it could not be denied

72 The Slaughterhouse Cases of 1873 originated with a lawsuit brought by butchers excluded from a state-created monopoly, the Crescent City Livestock Landing & Slaughterhouse Company of New Orleans

73 COMPROMISE OF 1877 Support for Reconstruction fades
Democrats regain control of state governments & their Congressional seats in 1876 1876 Presidential election: Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president in exchange for withdrawal of federal troops from LA & SC, federal $ to build railroad, & Hayes appoints a Southerner to the cabinet

74 MISTAKES OF RECONSTRUCTION
Assumption that extending civil rights to freed person would enable them to protect themselves through participation Congress did not adequately protect those rights Supreme Court undermined those rights NO land/jobs for African Americans – no economic independency Under estimated deep-seated racism


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