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9 October 2013 Mia Bennett Beyond Border Lines: Sovereignty and Foreign State- Owned Enterprises in the Arctic.

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Presentation on theme: "9 October 2013 Mia Bennett Beyond Border Lines: Sovereignty and Foreign State- Owned Enterprises in the Arctic."— Presentation transcript:

1 9 October 2013 Mia Bennett Beyond Border Lines: Sovereignty and Foreign State- Owned Enterprises in the Arctic

2 Outline 1.Foreign state-owned enterprises in the Arctic 2.Conventional theories of sovereignty 3.Rethinking sovereignty 4.Importance of infrastructure 5.Case studies a.Asian SOEs in the Arctic b.Greenland c.Iceland 6.Implications for sovereignty in the Arctic

3 Murmansk Speech “We have an interest in inviting, for instance, Canada and Norway to form mixed firms and enterprises for developing oil and gas deposits of the shelf of our northern seas. We are prepared for relevant talks with other states as well.” -Mikhail Gorbachev, 1987

4 Foreign state-owned enterprises national oil companies

5 Foreign state-owned enterprises 75% of global crude oil reserves and production Source: Congressional Research Service, 2007

6 Foreign state-owned enterprises “To the extent that state-owned firms reach across borders, they may become vehicles for geopolitical influence, particularly those dealing in key strategic resources such as energy.” (U.S. National Intelligence Council, 2008: 11)

7 Conventional view of sovereignty “The appearance of a centralized power which exercised its law making and law enforcing authority within a certain territory.” (Morgenthau 1948: 341)

8 Conventional view of sovereignty Credit: Winfried K. Dallmann

9 Rethinking sovereignty But sovereignty is not necessarily state-based, absolute, or territorial.

10 Rethinking sovereignty Photo: Jonas Karlsbakk

11 Importance of infrastructure split extractive-civilian society Photo: Pius Utomi Ekpei/AFP/Getty

12 Importance of infrastructure Photo: Patrick Endres/AlaskaPhotoGraphics Closed to public access

13 Importance of infrastructure “Instead of playing up its navigation and resource interests in the area, China should emphasize its identity as a ‘public goods provider’ to non-state actors, like residents, local governments and enterprises and promote cooperation with them.” Baozhi, 2013, in The Beijing Review

14 Asian state-owned enterprises ChinaKoreaJapan

15 Asian state-owned enterprises

16

17 Case study: Greenland 1945: U.S. offers $1.3 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars 2010: Denmark’s subsidy = $636 million (34% of Greenland’s GDP) 2013: London Mining Company: $2.35 billion Returns of $5.18 billion over 15 years  $345 million annually 54% of Denmark’s subsidy Photo: Crux Kommunikasjon London Mining

18 Case study: Iceland Photo: Mia Bennett

19 Implications for Arctic sovereignty Credit: International Boundaries Research Unit, Durham University

20 Implications for Arctic sovereignty Photo: KOGAS Canada Ltd. Photo: Financial Times

21 Richness Resilience Responsibility Mia Bennett Photo: Greenpeace


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