Presentation on theme: "The Sectional Crisis A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger."— Presentation transcript:
The Sectional Crisis A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger
Compromise, Slavery, and the Mexican Cession The Constitution gave the Federal Government the right to abolish the international slave trade. It was easy to condemn slavery in principle, but difficult to eliminate it without defying the Constitution. Radical Abolitionists said a higher law existed prohibiting human bondage. 1844 – William Lloyd Garrison publicly burned the Constitution calling it “A Covenant with Death, an Agreement with Hell!” 1840’s – majority of northerners disliked slavery, they also detested abolitionists.
North and South Views North view: Slave holders were power-hungry aristocrats seeking national political influence The Constitution had not predetermined the status of slavery in future states Congress could admit states under any conditions A majority could require the abolition of slavery as a price for admission. Missouri Compromise – set the stage for a division (line) between slave and free states. Slavery south of the line, and prohibited north of the line
Discussion How did the Mexican Cession create problems within the United States?
Free Soil Crusade David Wilmot proposed an amendment that would ban slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico Wilmot and some northern Democrats felt they were betrayed: Polk’s choice over Van Buren Pro southern policies of Polk Tariffs were reduced and manufacturers were not protected Polk vetoed a bill to provide federal funds for improvement of harbors and rivers Polk went back on his pledge to acquire all of Oregon Is this a conspiracy?
Southern Conspiracy They were convinced that the South was dominating the party and administration Wilmot was jealous of the power of the south He felt the rights of white freemen shouldn’t be disgraced by slavery in the territories Linked slavery to racism and appealed to a broad spectrum of the north Northern Whigs back Wilmot’s Proviso Vote of the Wilmot Proviso: All Northern congressmen minus 2 Democrats vote in favor All Southern congressmen minus 2 Whigs voted against. Bill was blocked, defeated when it was forced to go back to the House Sectional division – North States endorsed the Proviso South States opposed the Proviso
Squatter Sovereignty Discussion What was it? How does the Election of 1848 show sectional lines? Who wins? Why did people want to go to California? What unified the South?
Compromise Henry Clay offered a series of resolutions to bring sectional harmony The Compromise was proposed in 1850 It took months to pass mainly due to Taylor’s disapproval, but his VP Millard Fillmore like the compromise Stephen Douglas was important in moving the ideas through Congress. Gains both North and South support. The Compromise of 1850: North – California a free state, No slave auctions in D.C. South – Stronger Fugitive Slave Laws, Compensation to Texans, Popular Sovereignty would be used in New Mexico and Utah, Fugitive slaves lost constitutional rights The Compromise did serve for a time as a basis for sectional peace What is the Fugitive Slave Law?
Discussion: Politics What was going on in the world of politics around the election of 1852? Why would Manifest Destiny reappear? How do the Whigs fair in this time period? What is the role of Big Business? Why does immigration become an issue?
Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 – Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to settle the land west of Missouri and Iowa The Missouri Compromise had stated that these new territories would become free states To head off opposition and keep the Democratic Party united Douglas ignored the compromise, and proposed to settle the territory by popular sovereignty Douglas believed in democracy and hoped to revive Manifest Destiny, and to win the presidential nomination. Voting in Congress showed the amendment had split the voting. Half of the Northern democrats voted against it. The bill allowed slavery in an area where it was previously prohibited (North upset) The South felt obligated to support it.
Effects of the Act Major effect on Sectional Harmony Concessions on the extension of slavery without an equal concession to the North Ended the second party system as the already weak Whig party disintegrated as it divided along sectional lines. The Democrats survived, but its ability to act as a unifying national force was impaired. The anti-democratic coalitions would evolve into a new strong Free Soil Party (also called the republicans) Ostend Manifesto – acquire Cuba by any means American Ministers of England, France, and Spain met Plan was abandoned because the North felt this would create a Slave Empire
Discussion – the Know Nothings What are Nativists? What did the Know Nothings want?
The Rise of the Republicans The new Republican Party was an outgrowth of the anti – Nebraska coalition The name was first used in Wisconsin and Michigan Republicans argued the slave power conspiracy was a greater threat to American equality than the alleged population plot. Showed a commitment to the values of native born Evangelical Protestants. Supported causes that reflected this: Anti – immigrant Anti – Catholic Prohibition Defense of Religious institutions (Bible reading, Sabbath Day) Republicans were led by seasoned politicians (Past Whigs and Democrats) Capable of Grass Roots organizations, Building Coalitions, Popular Campaign Techniques Anti – Slavery and Free Soil
Cultural Sectionalism North and South split culturally along the issue of slavery. List some examples:
Dred Scott Case President James Buchanan (Democrat) hoped the Supreme Court would end the issue of slavery in the territories. Court Case: Dred Scott vs. Sanford Scott (Missouri) was taken to the WI territory by his master. His master died, and he sued for his freedom based on the number of the years he was in the north. March 6, 1857 Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled against Scott Scott could not sue because he wasn’t a citizen His residence in WI territory established no right to freedom because Congress had no power to prohibit slavery. So the Missouri Compromise was basically declared unconstitutional Northern Republicans called the decision the “slave power conspiracy” – 5 of the 6 judges were proslavery southerners. Called the decision the great crime of the republic, but the decision helped them to become more cohesive.
Lecompton Controversy, John Brown, and the Crisis of Fear Pro-slave advocates in Kansas felt it was time to draft a pro- slavery constitution and seek admission of Kansas to the US. Free states felt the vote was fixed, they boycotted the convention putting the decision in the hands of pro-slavery. The drafted constitution was drawn up at Lecompton It was certain that the free majority would vote it down Lecompton Constitution was a perversion of popular sovereignty strongly opposed by S. Douglas. President Buchanan tried to push it through the Senate – fistfights ensued, but was defeated in the House by Repubs and Douglas.
Crisis of Fear When Kansas became a free state (1858) slavery in the territories temporarily lost its energy. Issues remained: Southerners wanted slaves in territories, Republicans persisted to deny it. Events of 1859-1860 turned anxiety into a crisis of fear. Major incident – Raid on Harper’s Ferry (VA) Brown would use violence against slave owners A vision told him he was God’s chosen instrument He led 18 men (5 free blacks) across the Potomac to take the arsenal – planned to arm the slave population Held out until a group of US marines led by Robert E. Lee attacked He was financed by northern abolitionists, when captured he was sentenced to be hanged To the South, Republicans, abolitionists, and J. Brown were all one.
Misplaced? Fears… The South’s greatest fear was the non-slaveholding south (Helperism) would rise against the institution They would not tolerate an extreme republican as the speaker of the House – went to Congress armed. A moderate was chosen Slave prices were rising, ownership of slaves decreased, and Pro-slavery extremists called for the reopening of the Atlantic slave trade to lower prices. The south would not tolerate a republican to win the election of 1860 – said they would secede
What about Lincoln? Discussion Extreme thought: Did Lincoln cause the Civil War? What happened during the election of 1860