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Cedar Ridge High School

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1 Cedar Ridge High School
The United Nations and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Isa van der Drift Cedar Ridge High School

2 What is the most important role of the UN?
Peace building? International Government? Peacekeeping? Preventing wars?

3 Relation to UN Founded on the grounds of… preventing another World War
preventing mass atrocities

4 What is R2P? R2P is the obligation to protect and help other citizens of the world when Government can’t Government won’t Belief that nation-states are required to act in their peoples’ best interests

5 Why is it important? We are all members of the global community
Governments must protect their people U.N. is a “global government” Responsibility to assist nations who can not assist themselves

6 “Never Again” After the Holocaust, U.N. said “never again”
Yet, we had countless examples of Crimes Against Humanity (CAH); Rwanda Cambodia Syria Why?

7 History of R2P Idea originated after 1994 Rwandan genocide
U.N. and other nations failed to act Actual term originated in 2000 at the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) Created in the form of a doctrine

8 R2P Doctrine Important points: 3 Responsibilities
Sovereignty: responsibility, not a right First state, then International Community/U.N. 3 Responsibilities Prevent, react, rebuild Military Intervention: last resort

9 Military Intervention
Last Resort All others must have been used Right intent To halt human suffering Proportional Minimum intervention Consequence of action less than consequence of inaction

10 Rwanda Government was unable to stop genocide
Hutu killing Tutsis, as well as Hutus not supporting actions U.N. and International Community not acting Debating genocide vs. acts of genocide 800,000 people killed

11 Syria Bashar al-Assad using chemical weapons against civilians
Government unwilling to protect people U.N. in political gridlock International Community not doing anything Current peace talks not working.

12 Central African Republic (CAR)
Government unable to control/help people Muslim and Christian communities fighting U.N. refusing to help Relying on other nations Members of E.U. are supplying troops France, Belgium

13 Libya Fear that Benghazi would be attacked
Military intervention used in Libya Not a last resort NATO- not U.N. Despite use of R2P, international community not happy with use of military intervention Chain of intervention

14 Faults with U.N. system Security Council
Veto Powers Gridlock National security vs. Human security Chain of intervention Sovereignty

15 Solutions: UNSC Security Council Reform Veto Powers Pressure

16 Solutions: National vs. Human Security
Emphasize importance of human security Political outlook People vs. Politics Russia

17 Solutions: Chain of Intervention
Resolution directing specific chain of intervention Prevent military involvement Potential chain: Prevention Humanitarian Aid Negotiation Military Intervention

18 Solutions: Sovereignty
What is sovereignty today? Change the definition Responsibility to protect people Sovereignty is irrelevant when government can’t protect

19 Bibliography "Libya Conflict: Q&A." BBC News. BBC, 20 Oct Web. 25 Jan "United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)." United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). United Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "United Nations Official Document." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "Central African Republic: Despite Insecurity, UN Provides Food for Hundreds of Thousands." UN News Center. UN, 24 Jan Web. 25 Jan "Genocide Watch." Genocide Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan Melly, Paul. "Why Central African Republic Is Slipping Close to Catastrophe." Genocide Watch. Cable News Network, 02 Dec Web. 25 Jan "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. United Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. N.p., Dec Web. 25 Jan

20 Bibliography "R2P – A Short History." RSS. United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe, n.d. Web. 25 Jan Mutton, Jan F. "Responsibility to Protect." Dag Hammerskjöld Foundation. DHF, Sept Web. 31 Jan Farooqi, Manaal N. "Responsibility to Protect: In Need of Reform." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. N.p., Sept Web. 25 Jan Olesen, Thomas. "Global Injustice Memories: The 1994 Rwandan Genocide." International Political Sociology, Dec Web. 25 Jan Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." The Atlantic, Sept Web. 25 Jan "Learn About RtoP." Learn About RtoP. International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, n.d. Web. 25 Jan

21 Photo Citations

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