Presentation on theme: "The United Nations and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Isa van der Drift Cedar Ridge High School."— Presentation transcript:
The United Nations and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Isa van der Drift Cedar Ridge High School
What is the most important role of the UN? Peace building? International Government? Peacekeeping? Preventing wars?
Relation to UN Founded on the grounds of… o preventing another World War o preventing mass atrocities
What is R2P? R2P is the obligation to protect and help other citizens of the world when o Government can’t o Government won’t Belief that nation-states are required to act in their peoples’ best interests
Why is it important? We are all members of the global community Governments must protect their people o U.N. is a “global government” Responsibility to assist nations who can not assist themselves
“Never Again” After the Holocaust, U.N. said “never again” Yet, we had countless examples of Crimes Against Humanity (CAH); o Rwanda o Cambodia o Syria Why?
History of R2P Idea originated after 1994 Rwandan genocide o U.N. and other nations failed to act Actual term originated in 2000 at the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) o Created in the form of a doctrine
R2P Doctrine Important points: o Sovereignty: responsibility, not a right o First state, then International Community/U.N. 3 Responsibilities o Prevent, react, rebuild Military Intervention: last resort
Military Intervention Last Resort o All others must have been used Right intent o To halt human suffering Proportional o Minimum intervention Consequence of action less than consequence of inaction
Rwanda Government was unable to stop genocide Hutu killing Tutsis, as well as Hutus not supporting actions U.N. and International Community not acting o Debating genocide vs. acts of genocide 800,000 people killed
Syria Bashar al-Assad using chemical weapons against civilians o Government unwilling to protect people U.N. in political gridlock International Community not doing anything Current peace talks not working.
Central African Republic (CAR) Government unable to control/help people Muslim and Christian communities fighting U.N. refusing to help o Relying on other nations Members of E.U. are supplying troops o France, Belgium
Libya Fear that Benghazi would be attacked Military intervention used in Libya o Not a last resort o NATO- not U.N. Despite use of R2P, international community not happy with use of military intervention o Chain of intervention
Faults with U.N. system Security Council o Veto Powers o Gridlock National security vs. Human security Chain of intervention Sovereignty
Solutions: UNSC Security Council o Reform o Veto Powers o Pressure
Solutions: National vs. Human Security Emphasize importance of human security Political outlook People vs. Politics o Russia
Solutions: Chain of Intervention Resolution directing specific chain of intervention o Prevent military involvement Potential chain: o Prevention o Humanitarian Aid o Negotiation o Military Intervention
Solutions: Sovereignty What is sovereignty today? Change the definition o Responsibility to protect people o Sovereignty is irrelevant when government can’t protect
Bibliography "Libya Conflict: Q&A." BBC News. BBC, 20 Oct Web. 25 Jan "United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)." United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). United Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "United Nations Official Document." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "Central African Republic: Despite Insecurity, UN Provides Food for Hundreds of Thousands." UN News Center. UN, 24 Jan Web. 25 Jan "Genocide Watch." Genocide Watch. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Jan Melly, Paul. "Why Central African Republic Is Slipping Close to Catastrophe." Genocide Watch. Cable News Network, 02 Dec Web. 25 Jan "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. United Nations, n.d. Web. 25 Jan "United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. N.p., Dec Web. 25 Jan
Bibliography "R2P – A Short History." RSS. United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe, n.d. Web. 25 Jan Mutton, Jan F. "Responsibility to Protect." Dag Hammerskjöld Foundation. DHF, Sept Web. 31 Jan Farooqi, Manaal N. "Responsibility to Protect: In Need of Reform." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. N.p., Sept Web. 25 Jan Olesen, Thomas. "Global Injustice Memories: The 1994 Rwandan Genocide." International Political Sociology, Dec Web. 25 Jan Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." The Atlantic, Sept Web. 25 Jan "Learn About RtoP." Learn About RtoP. International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, n.d. Web. 25 Jan
Photo Citations order/ order/ https://www.nytexaminer.com/2013/08/holding-them-to-the-promise-of- responsibility-to-protect-contemplating-the-paradox-of-r2p/ https://www.nytexaminer.com/2013/08/holding-them-to-the-promise-of- responsibility-to-protect-contemplating-the-paradox-of-r2p/ and-the-relationship-between-r2p-and-the-international-criminal-court/ and-the-relationship-between-r2p-and-the-international-criminal-court/ disarm/ html disarm/ html https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/