http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th4uT2co Xhk Food sovereignty - the claimed "right" of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock and fisheries systems, in contrast to having food largely subject to international market forces.
Food Security Britain in the 1930’s underwent a population explosion People began moving to the cities, and towns/the countryside started to become depopulated Fewer and fewer farmers resulted in Britain importing much of its food from the rest of Europe/India…plus the food was cheaper to buy from India, then to be produced in Britain British farmers couldn’t compete with the cheap imports, and moved to the city. With WWII, the German uboats blockaded Britain. Without the imports, hunger and starvation became rampant.
After WW II, Britain decided it needed food security. The government - mandated certain areas to be green (couldn’t be converted to industrial use) -Imposed tariffs on all imported food (a tax to make the food more expensive_ - Gave local farmers tax breaks and subsidies to make their food cheaper.
Canada, Food Sovereignty and Free Trade Canada also has food sovereignty laws. Dairy and Egg farmers are protected by laws on the import of eggs and raw milk into Canada. Eggs and raw milk are subject to tariffs at the border ( a tax), which drives their prices up. The tax is 200%. The side effect of this though, is Canadian dairy and chicken farmers charge more for their product. Canadians pay the highest price for milk and eggs compared to the rest of North America. In Canada we pay almost $2 more for a 2L milk carton than in the states., and almost $3 more for a block of cheese. New Zealand gets around this law, by importing powdered milk into Canada, often to be used to make ice cream, powdered milk or cheese. This is called “Modified Milk ingredients”. Cheap ice cream is made from this.
Other products such as cow meat, chicken meat and fruits and vegetables are not subject to tariffs. Thus Canadian farmers have to price their food to the same value imports are priced….thus these foods are cheaper for consumers to buy. The Big Problem (for some people) Free Trade Canada has free trade agreements with many countries (see next slides) Canada has an exemption in all its free trade deals to not include dairy and eggs…but this could change if these countries take Canada to the International Court. Example- US took Canada to court in 2004 because Canada allowed its loggers to sell logs from Federal lands. These loggers paid only a small amount of money for the timber, and yet then sold it too American companies for a cheap price. American loggers couldn’t compete with the cheap prices and complained
Changing Agriculture Technology and Biotechnology is changing agriculture Technology Using technology such as large tractors, robots, etc, to harvest, sort and ship a farmers product. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=insBfvw4qeM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9DEIPZmiiXk&feature=related Farms of the Future http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkwbJJpeiVs&feature=related Automated milking machines http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=em7YYPXqqsw&feature=related
Biotechnology Mixing and matching plants and animals to produce super plants and super animals.
An area of focus is lab meat Growing meat in a test tube Lab meat, may replace cows, chickens, pigs, etc, in under 50 years !! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDCmLya-lZc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ev_DHcu8ve0
Many towns/communities on PEI rely on the agriculture industry to sustain them; Including Montague O’Leary Kensington Wellington Vernon River Hunter River Mount Stewart Without the farmers buying locally, the businesses in the towns would cease to exist
Big Box stores There headquarters are often off island, thus most of the money islanders spend in the store leaves PEI/Canada Small Local Stores There headquarters are often on PEI, thus the money stays local. The owners end up spending their money in other PEI stores. Same with Agriculture I can buy from the farmer, farmers market, co-op, etc and the money stays local But, as soon as I buy from the big box stores, most of my money ends up leaving PEI/Canada Video on Manufactured demand and bottled water http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Se12y9hSOM0
Population of PEI 141,000 as of 2010 Rural vs Urban
Trends in Agriculture PEI farmers used to grow primarily Beef and dairy cows Yukon Gold Potatoes Wheat, Oats Clover Now, the have diversified To grow over 20 varieties of Potatoes Over 30 varieties of apples Over 20 different vegetables (Turnip, Broccoli, Carrots, etc) Rice Alpaca Canola Soybean Corn etc
Economic Trends in Agriculture Fashion in and Fashion out
Skunk Farms were popular in the 40’s When Skunk coats became out of fashion, the farmers released their animals into the wild. What other types of farming have disappeared on PEI due to people’s preferences -Fox farms - Ginseng - Emu - goats
What types of agriculture that we have now, that probably won’t be around in 20-30 years??? (on PEI) Oats… Llama Alpaca Ayreshire Cows sheep http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=we9_C dNPuJg
Job Opportunities in Agriscience Farming Depends on your Education/Experience Potatoes and most other crops Grader Tractor Driver Truck Driver Sprayer (either tractor, airplane or helicopter) Airplane spraying is known as Crop Dusting http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gjly5ykM9kQ
Job Opportunities in Agriscience Farming Computer Programmer (most farmers use computer programs to track their business) Veterinarian Vet assistant Search the globe looking for new fruits to grow Example haskip berry that is native to Northern Siberia (looks like a blueberry but tastes like a raspberry) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4bxmYm2K58
Chemists – mix different foods together to form new fruits/apples Every apple tree has been grafted onto a crab apple tree. There was originally one apple tree…whose leaves have been grafted onto different types of crab apple trees to produce new varieties of apples. A crack is made in the stump of the crab apple tree, and branches from an apple tree are inserted in and tape is taped around it until the cut heals (Farmers can grow as many types of apples onto a tree as there are branches You can now buy an apple Tree that grows Spartan Fuji Granvestein Granny Smith etc
Grafting Every Crimson Maple Tree has been produced through biotechnology. There was originally one purple maple tree. It’s branches were grafted onto other maples trees that had green leaves. These maple trees, now produce purple leaves (but only above the graft point)
Banana Tree’s around the world that produce the yellow banana are all clones of each other. One banana tree/herb a long time ago, produced banana’s without seeds. This herb was highly valued, as normally banana’s are not edible because there are too many seeds. As a banana herb grows, it produces suckers at its base. These suckers were collected and planted elsewhere. Today, all the worlds banana’s are genetically identical. One disease could easily wipe them all out.
Sustainable Agriculture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rG3SBQYOms What factors affect sustainable agriculture Average Temperature (higher temperature means soil is produced faster) Erosion…both wind and water Diversity types of crops grown Reduce pesticide usage No till farming http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIHwhJTDKSo&feature=related What shall we do with the land? Pillage or Maintain or Enhance
Historical Importance of Agriculture World Population has increased for two primary reasons 1)access to health care 2) Access to stable food supplies Example Rwanda Population grew from 100 per square km in 1890, to 2140 in 1993
Science of a Hungry World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RJ6AqWAOEg&feature=relmfu Part 1-4
Irrigation More irrigation: Irrigation dominates water use globally and is generally on the rise since irrigated land is more productive than rain-fed land. In 1998, over 9,000,000 hectares of land in the U.S. were irrigated as opposed to 16,000 hectares in 1970.16 In order to meet irrigation demands, underground aquifers are being depleted. Nature cannot replenish its groundwater quickly enough. As a result, water tables are steadily falling. The Ogallala aquifer in the central U.S. has suffered the greatest depletion partially because very little rainwater replenishes it. It alone waters 1/5 of U.S. irrigated land and is currently Drip Irrigation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9f0vtraLj4