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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AN INTRODUCTION 2011Sophie Kropman1.

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1 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AN INTRODUCTION 2011Sophie Kropman1

2 WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS? The study of the relations between states States are the main actors/players that are associated with international relations States are: – Politically organised human groupings – Occupy distinctive territory with borders – Are independent of one another – Are not under any higher political authority The study of the relations between states States are the main actors/players that are associated with international relations States are: – Politically organised human groupings – Occupy distinctive territory with borders – Are independent of one another – Are not under any higher political authority 2011Sophie Kropman2

3 The doctrine of State Sovereignty Australia is a sovereign state with a distinct territory and clearly defined borders and a government recognised internationally. 2011Sophie Kropman3

4 The development of an international society ANCIENT GREECE: based on the concept of city-states such as Athens, Sparta and Corinth. The city state was referred to as the ‘polis’ and enjoyed political autonomy from other states Sophie Kropman4

5 RENAISSANCE ITALY: based on the concept of the stato which were also city-states. These included Florence, Venice and Milan. These stati were independent and instituted their own free standing political systems. Together, these stati formed the second wave of an international society. RENAISSANCE ITALY: based on the concept of the stato which were also city-states. These included Florence, Venice and Milan. These stati were independent and instituted their own free standing political systems. Together, these stati formed the second wave of an international society Sophie Kropman5

6 TREATY OF WESTPHALIA 1648: This peace treaty ended the religious wars between Catholics and Protestants. This treaty signalled beginnings of modern international relations between modern states. Characteristics included: – Sovereigns (kings/queens) not subject to any higher political authority – Every sovereign (king/queen) is independent and equal to every other sovereign. – The ruler of their territory determines their own laws – A balance of power intended between member states to prevent any one state from dominating TREATY OF WESTPHALIA 1648: This peace treaty ended the religious wars between Catholics and Protestants. This treaty signalled beginnings of modern international relations between modern states. Characteristics included: – Sovereigns (kings/queens) not subject to any higher political authority – Every sovereign (king/queen) is independent and equal to every other sovereign. – The ruler of their territory determines their own laws – A balance of power intended between member states to prevent any one state from dominating 2011 Sophie Kropman6

7 2011Sophie Kropman7

8 The Westphalian Constitution of World Politics 1.TERRITORIALITY- humankind is organised principally into exclusive territorial (political) communities with fixed borders 2.SOVERIEGNTY- within its borders the state or government has an entitlement to supreme, unqualified, and exclusive political and legal authority 3.AUTONOMY- countries appear as as autonomous containers of political, social, and economic activity in that fixed borders separate the domestic sphere from the world outside. 1.TERRITORIALITY- humankind is organised principally into exclusive territorial (political) communities with fixed borders 2.SOVERIEGNTY- within its borders the state or government has an entitlement to supreme, unqualified, and exclusive political and legal authority 3.AUTONOMY- countries appear as as autonomous containers of political, social, and economic activity in that fixed borders separate the domestic sphere from the world outside. 2011Sophie Kropman8

9 Traditional International Relations States as the main actors in international relations Respect for the sovereignty of states crucial Security of the state was most important- security of borders, citizens, economy Diplomacy (using dialogue to persuade) was a crucial tactic in forging relations between states United Nations (UN) an important manifestation of the modern ‘society of states’ however states still sovereign within their own territory States had the monopoly of violence- they raised armies, manufactured and traded weapons, and declared and fought wars against other states States as the main actors in international relations Respect for the sovereignty of states crucial Security of the state was most important- security of borders, citizens, economy Diplomacy (using dialogue to persuade) was a crucial tactic in forging relations between states United Nations (UN) an important manifestation of the modern ‘society of states’ however states still sovereign within their own territory States had the monopoly of violence- they raised armies, manufactured and traded weapons, and declared and fought wars against other states 2011Sophie Kropman9

10 International relations today States remain the main actors in international relations BUT have to share the space with other non-state actors such as: – TNCs (Transnational Corporations) – NGOs (Non Government Organisations) – Oil and currency speculators – Terrorist networks Respect for the sovereignty of states remains today although there have been attempts to rise above this when there are acts of genocide occurring. Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan show that state sovereignty and interests remain more important that intervening in the name of an international society States remain the main actors in international relations BUT have to share the space with other non-state actors such as: – TNCs (Transnational Corporations) – NGOs (Non Government Organisations) – Oil and currency speculators – Terrorist networks Respect for the sovereignty of states remains today although there have been attempts to rise above this when there are acts of genocide occurring. Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan show that state sovereignty and interests remain more important that intervening in the name of an international society 2011Sophie Kropman10

11 Security of the state remains important however a state’s security has expanded to include threats that it has lost the ability to control within its territory – Climate change – AIDS. SARS, Avian flu – International terrorism – Illegal trade in people, organs, weapons, narcotics – Refugees and asylum seekers Diplomacy (using dialogue to persuade) remains a crucial tactic in forging relations between states however resolving conflict and other issues between state and non state groups is difficult when the other actors are not states States no longer have the monopoly of violence- they now share and compete with other non state actors in trading weapons, selling nuclear secrets, and even raising private armies. They are also now targeted by non state terror networks in warfare. Security of the state remains important however a state’s security has expanded to include threats that it has lost the ability to control within its territory – Climate change – AIDS. SARS, Avian flu – International terrorism – Illegal trade in people, organs, weapons, narcotics – Refugees and asylum seekers Diplomacy (using dialogue to persuade) remains a crucial tactic in forging relations between states however resolving conflict and other issues between state and non state groups is difficult when the other actors are not states States no longer have the monopoly of violence- they now share and compete with other non state actors in trading weapons, selling nuclear secrets, and even raising private armies. They are also now targeted by non state terror networks in warfare. 2011Sophie Kropman11

12 What has fostered this change in international relations and the power of the state? GLOBALISATION has fostered this change. – It is a force wave that has emerged over the last 20 years – It has been driven by the technological advances in information technology – It is the framework by which all international relations, war, trade and communications occur between people and states GLOBALISATION has fostered this change. – It is a force wave that has emerged over the last 20 years – It has been driven by the technological advances in information technology – It is the framework by which all international relations, war, trade and communications occur between people and states 2011Sophie Kropman12


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