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NorthSouth 1.Foundation 2.Population 3. Manufacturing & Resources 1.Industry & Trade 2.71% of U.S. population & 99% free 3.92% of US industrial output;

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Presentation on theme: "NorthSouth 1.Foundation 2.Population 3. Manufacturing & Resources 1.Industry & Trade 2.71% of U.S. population & 99% free 3.92% of US industrial output;"— Presentation transcript:

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4 NorthSouth 1.Foundation 2.Population 3. Manufacturing & Resources 1.Industry & Trade 2.71% of U.S. population & 99% free 3.92% of US industrial output; generous resources to produce weapons. 1.Agriculture 2.29% of U.S. population; 67% free & 33% slave 3.8% of US industrial output minimal resources to produce weapons.

5 NorthSouth 4. Employment & Property Ownership 5. Exports & Views on Tariffs 4. Many citizens worked for someone else and owned no property. 5. Favored high tariffs on imported goods to protect northern industries and worker’s jobs. 4. Southerners owned slaves; depended on the production of cotton; corn; rice; & tobacco; which required human labor.. 5. Favored low (or no) tariffs on imported goods to keep prices of goods more affordable.

6 NorthSouth 6. Food Production 7. Railroads 6. More than twice as much as the South produce 7. 71% of US railroad network; efficient railway transport system. 6. Less than half as much as the North produced 7. 29% of US railroad network; inefficient railway transport system.

7 Missouri Compromise of 1820 Missouri applied for statehood in 1819 as a slave state. Missouri applied for statehood in 1819 as a slave state. At the time there was 11 free states & 11 slave states. At the time there was 11 free states & 11 slave states. By adding another slave state; it would upset the senate’s equal balance By adding another slave state; it would upset the senate’s equal balance Henry Clay created the Missouri Compromise Henry Clay created the Missouri Compromise Under the Compromise: Missouri became a slave state Missouri became a slave state Maine became a free state Maine became a free state Louisiana Territory was divided at the 36 degree, 30 minute parallel; north of the line must be free territory; south of the line could be slave territory Louisiana Territory was divided at the 36 degree, 30 minute parallel; north of the line must be free territory; south of the line could be slave territory Although it became a law; few people on either side were happy about it. The senate would retain its equal balance until the next state asked to enter the Union.

8 Wilmot Proviso (1846) It was a bill that would ban slavery in the new territories acquired from Mexico It was a bill that would ban slavery in the new territories acquired from Mexico Northerners favored the bill Northerners favored the bill Southerners opposed because they had the right to slaves in new territories because they were property and property was protected under the Constitution Southerners opposed because they had the right to slaves in new territories because they were property and property was protected under the Constitution The Wilmot Proviso never passed The Wilmot Proviso never passed

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10 The Compromise of 1850 The Compromise stated: The Compromise stated: The state of New Mexico would be established from state of Texas The state of New Mexico would be established from state of Texas New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery (popular sovereignty) (popular sovereignty) California would be admitted to the Union as a free state California would be admitted to the Union as a free state All citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so will receive harsh punishments (Fugitive Slave Act) All citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so will receive harsh punishments (Fugitive Slave Act) The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia; but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia; but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. The expansion of U.S. territory and population growth in the West continued to fuel political tensions between free states and slave states over the extension of slavery Those who favored slavery and those who opposed slavery therefore agreed to five laws that addressed these concerns. The five laws are known as the Compromise of 1850

11 Compromise of 1850

12 Slave and Free Territories Under the Compromise of 1850

13 Sectional Views Differ on Key Political Issues IssueNorthSouthWest Protective Tariff (taxes on goods brought in from other country) They wanted high tariffs on imported goods so they could sell their own products in the United States. They wanted to keep out competition by marking foreign goods more expensive. They wanted to sell their cotton and tobacco to other countries and buy manufactured goods as cheaply as possible because it had few factories. (Against it) They supported the North’s position

14 IssueNorthSouthWest National BankDemanded a federally backed national bank to help stabilize currency & credit. Argued that a national bank tended to tighten money & credit and placed too much power in the hands of few bankers Agreed with the South Internal Improvements The demand was supported because better transportation helped to expand its trade Trade with the West was limited. Resented paying for projects that provided little benefits to its people. Insisted that roads and canals be built at the federal government’s expense Cheap Western Land Opposed because westward migration reduced the supply of labor for its mills and factories Seeking to expand its plantation system and slavery; also favored cheap land Asked the federal government to make land available at low cost and easy terms.

15 IssueNorthSouthWest The UnionBelieved the United States must remain one country to remain strong. Claimed that the United States was an organized of independent states. Since they chose to join in; they could also choose to leave and form their own country. SlaveryThey wanted to end the expansion of slavery. Slave owners wanted to extend slavery to all new states. States’ RightsThey felt the federal government should have more power than individual state. Believed individual states should have more control over laws than the federal government.

16 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852  Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe.  The novel showed the horror of slavery. It helped readers see slaves as real people.  It also helped northern abolitionists to increase their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act  Southerners criticized the book as an attack on their way of life. They attempted to show that the book was all lies but were unable to do so.  Published by Harriet Beecher Stowe.  The novel showed the horror of slavery. It helped readers see slaves as real people.  It also helped northern abolitionists to increase their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act  Southerners criticized the book as an attack on their way of life. They attempted to show that the book was all lies but were unable to do so.

17 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln

18 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1. Slavery became a major issue again when Nebraska Territory was opened up for settlement. 2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became a law in It split Nebraska territory into two new territories-Nebraska & Kansas and repealed the Missouri Compromise of It gave the settlers in all new territories the right to decide for themselves whether their would be a free or slave state-the principle of popular sovereignty (rule by the people)

19 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

20 “Bleeding Kansas” 1.Pro and anti-slavery group hurried into Kansas in attempts to create voting majorities there. 2.Violence soon erupted in Kansas. John Brown; a fierce opponent of slavery; killed five proslavery people in the raid. 3.About 200 people were killed. Because of the violence of both sides; the territory was nicknamed “Bleeding Kansas” 1.Pro and anti-slavery group hurried into Kansas in attempts to create voting majorities there. 2.Violence soon erupted in Kansas. John Brown; a fierce opponent of slavery; killed five proslavery people in the raid. 3.About 200 people were killed. Because of the violence of both sides; the territory was nicknamed “Bleeding Kansas”

21 Abolitionist Movement Abolitionists were people who wanted to end slavery. They believed they could convince others of the evils of slavery by publishing newspaper; almanacs & books. They sponsored lectures and invited former slaves to speak. Some helped runaway slaves escaped and some believed violence was the only way to end slavery.

22 Formation of the Republican Party The widening gulf between north and south affected the nation’s political parties as well. As the debate over slavery grew more intense; national parties splintered or broke apart- and groups started new parties; such as the Republican Party. The widening gulf between north and south affected the nation’s political parties as well. As the debate over slavery grew more intense; national parties splintered or broke apart- and groups started new parties; such as the Republican Party. The Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate The Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate Major Platform: opposed expansion of slavery into territories Major Platform: opposed expansion of slavery into territories Opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act Opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act

23 What was the Dred Scott Decision? Dred Scott born a slave Dred Scott born a slave Scott claimed that residing in the free states made him a free man. Scott claimed that residing in the free states made him a free man. Went to court to obtain freedom for himself and his family. Went to court to obtain freedom for himself and his family. The court rejected Scott’s claim; ruling slaves were considered property. Therefore; free or slave they were not considered US citizens and could not file lawsuits in federal courts. The court rejected Scott’s claim; ruling slaves were considered property. Therefore; free or slave they were not considered US citizens and could not file lawsuits in federal courts. The Dred Scott decision gave slavery the protection under the Constitution. The Dred Scott decision gave slavery the protection under the Constitution. The court did find popular sovereignty and Missouri Compromise of 1820 to be unconstitutional The court did find popular sovereignty and Missouri Compromise of 1820 to be unconstitutional

24 Chief Justice Roger Taney Chief Justice Roger Taney In 1857, he ruled that the Constitution did not recognize the citizenship of an African American who had been born a slave. In 1857, he ruled that the Constitution did not recognize the citizenship of an African American who had been born a slave. This decision sparked bitter opposition from northern politicians and a heated defense from the South. This decision sparked bitter opposition from northern politicians and a heated defense from the South. It was one of the most important events leading up to war. It was one of the most important events leading up to war.

25 Who established a secret route to the North used by escaped slaves? Born a slave on a Maryland plantation She was a runaway slave. She rode the underground railroad to Pennsylvania. She returned secretly to help others to freedom. She became a conductor for the underground railroad

26 Frederick Douglass He was born Feb. 7, 1817 and died Feb. 20, He was born Feb. 7, 1817 and died Feb. 20, The black American was one of the most eminent human-rights leaders of the 19th century. The black American was one of the most eminent human-rights leaders of the 19th century. His oratorical and literary brilliance thrust him into the forefront of the U.S. Abolition movement. His oratorical and literary brilliance thrust him into the forefront of the U.S. Abolition movement. He became the first black citizen to hold high rank in the U.S. government. He became the first black citizen to hold high rank in the U.S. government.

27 Frederick Douglass During the Civil War ( ) he became a consultant to President Lincoln, advocating that former slaves be armed for the North and that the war be made a direct confrontation against slavery. During the Civil War ( ) he became a consultant to President Lincoln, advocating that former slaves be armed for the North and that the war be made a direct confrontation against slavery. Throughout Reconstruction ( ), he fought for full civil rights for freedmen and vigorously supported the women's rights movement. Throughout Reconstruction ( ), he fought for full civil rights for freedmen and vigorously supported the women's rights movement.

28 William Lloyd Garrison A writer and editor White Abolitionist Founded regional and national abolitionist societies and published an antislavery newspaper that printed graphic stories of the bad treatment received by slaves.

29 How did Lincoln and Douglas view slavery? Douglas Opposed slavery but favored popular sovereignty Believed popular sovereignty would allow slavery to pass away on its own He did not think slavery was immoral; he did believe it was a backward labor system Lincoln Opposed slavery & did not support popular sovereignty Believed slavery was immoral a labor system of greed He doubted that slavery would cease to spread without legislation outlawing it in the territories

30 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859 John Brown believed in fighting slavery with violence. He led a group of white/black men in a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry; Va (today W. Va). Killing seven people They hoped to steal weapons and arm slaves. The raid failed and Brown was captured. He was executed by hanging.

31 1860 Presiden tial Election √ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

32 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!

33 What was the results of the Presidential Election of Abraham Lincoln wins the Presidential election. 2. Southern states begin to leave the Union. South Carolina seceded (withdraw) on Dec. 20; The following year Alabama; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi and Texas joined S. Carolina to form the Confederate States of America

34 Evaluating the Causes of the Civil War The Civil War was caused by many interlocking and complex factors. The expansion of slavery; constitutional disputes over state’s rights; economic & social differences between N & S; political disagreements and failure of compromises were all general causes of the Civil War. The publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin; “Bleeding Kansas”; the Dred Scott case; the Freeport Doctrine and even the election of Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans in 1860 can all be considered specific causes of the Civil War.

35 Secession!: SC  Dec. 20, 1860


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