2 Economic Principles The Earth’s Resources Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Resources Insatiable Wants Scarcity and Choice
3 Economic Principles Economic Model Building Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Analysis Positive and Normative Economics
4 Natural Resources A natural resource is a gift of nature.
5 Natural Resources Examples of natural resources include: land the uncultivated produce of land water minerals
6 Natural Resources There are two kinds of natural resources: Renewable Nonrenewable
7 Natural Resources A renewable natural resource is one that can be replenished.
8 Natural Resources Renewable natural resources include: forests sea and land animals water grasses and forage on rangelands
9 Natural Resources A nonrenewable natural resource is one that cannot be replenished.
10 Natural Resources Nonrenewable natural resources include: metals and ores oil and natural gas
11 Natural Resources Are we running out of natural resources? We live in a finite world
12 Natural Resources Are we running out of natural resources? Our knowledge of a resource’s relative scarcity, particularly when considering its availability in the not-too-distant future, is less than exact.
13 Natural Resources Are we running out of natural resources? Even though some resources are renewable, the overproduction of lands and overharvesting of resources to meet the needs of a rapidly growing human population can destroy our living resources.
14 Natural Resources Are we running out of natural resources? Properly managed conservation of resources can both protect natural resources and even increase their supply.
15 Scarcity Scarcity is the perpetual state of insufficiency of resources to satisfy people’s unlimited wants.
16 Scarcity Two competing facts create scarcity: Because we live on planet earth, the supple of resources available to us is limited. Our wants for goods that are produced by the limited resources is unlimited.
17 Scarcity Examples of things that are scarce: Super Bowl tickets
18 Scarcity Examples of things that are scarce: Meals at a fine restaurant
19 Scarcity Examples of things that are scarce: Admission to an elite university
20 Scarcity Examples of things that are not scarce: Snow and ice in Alaska
21 Scarcity Examples of things that are not scarce: Sand in a desert
22 Scarcity Some things that are not scarce can become scarce. Air in the atmosphere is not scarce. Clean, unpolluted air is scarce in many metropolitan areas, however.
23 Scarcity and Consumers No one will knowingly pay a positive price for something that is not scarce. If something is not scarce, there is enough to satisfy everyone’s wants and the price system is not necessary to decide who can have it and who cannot.
24 The Study of Economics Economics is the study of how people work together to transform resources into goods and services to satisfy their wants.
25 The Study of Economics Four central questions of economics: Who decides what goods to produce? How are goods produced? Who gets the goods produced? Who produces what?
26 Consumer Sovereignty The Freedom of consumers to determine what goods and services they will buy.
27 Consumer Sovereignty Consumer sovereignty affects the economy in several ways. Consumer decisions ultimately determine what goods and services the economy will produce.
28 Consumer Sovereignty Consumer sovereignty affects the economy in several ways. Consumer decisions determine who gets what goods.
29 Economic Models Economic models are simplified abstractions of the real world.
30 Economic Models 1. How can economic models be expressed? pictorially graphically algebraically verbally
31 Economic Models Economists use models because the world is too complex to fully and comprehensively consider at one time.
32 Economic Models Ceteris Paribus Ceteris Paribus is a Latin phrase meaning “everything else being equal.”
33 Economic Models The ceteris paribus assumption allows economists to develop one- to-one, cause-and-effect relationships in isolation.
34 Economic Models The role of ceteris paribus: isolates one factor at a time in an experiment or study. allows researchers to identify cause-and-effect relationships removed from other factors.
35 EXHIBIT 1THE CIRCULAR FLOW MODEL
36 Circular Flow Model There are two principal players in the circular flow model households firms
37 Circular Flow Model Households A household is an economic unit of one or more persons, living under one roof, that has a source of income and uses it in whatever way it deems fit.
38 Circular Flow Model Firms A firm is an economic unit that produces goods and services in the expectation of selling them to households, other firms, or the government.
39 Circular Flow Model Resource Market The resource market is the market in which households supply resources to firms.
40 Circular Flow Model These resources can include land labor capital entrepreneurship
41 Circular Flow Model Firms pay for these resources with: wages rent interest profit
42 Circular Flow Model Product Market The product market is the market in which firms supply goods and services to households.
43 Circular Flow Model Product Market Households pay for goods and services they buy in the product market with the income they received from supplying resources in the resource market.
44 Circular Flow Model In this model, households supply resources to firms, and firms supply goods and services to households.
45 Micro vs. Macro The study of economics is divided into two areas microeconomics macroeconomics
46 Micro vs. Macro Macroeconomics Macroeconomics analyzes the behavior of the market as a whole.
47 Micro vs. Macro Microeconomics Microeconomics analyzes individual and firm behavior, especially in market conditions.
48 Positive vs. Normative Economics There are two different approaches to the study of economics Positive economics Normative economics
49 Positive vs. Normative Economics Positive Economics Positive economics is a subset of economics that analyzes the way the economy actually operates.
50 Positive vs. Normative Economics Normative Economics Normative economics is a subset of economics founded on value judgments and leading to assertions of what ought to be.