Social Studies Chapter 4 California’s Indians Today By Mr. Mallory
mission Religious communities built by the Spanish Press the arrow to skip background information and continue to vocabulary.
Spanish Explorers Built Missions from 1769 - 1823 Native American’s learned Spanish customs and about the Catholic religion.
Mexican War of Independence 1810 - 1821 In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo declared independence from the Spanish crown. In 1821, the war ended, and the Treaty of Cordoba was signed which recognized Mexican Independence. In 1833, the Mexican lawmakers passed An Act for the Secularization of the missions. The act provided for the colonization of Alta and Baja California, with the expenses paid for by the sale of the missions. The missions were then closed and the land was sold off as ranchos.
Meanwhile, The English were colonizing the East Coast and forming the first 13 states of the United States.
Pioneers traveled westward taking land as they went. They believed in Manifest Destiny.
When the arrived in the west they found a California that was controlled by the Mexican Government. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico. The war was called the Mexican American War. In 1848, California became the 31 st state of the United States.
reservation Areas of land reserved or set aside for the Indians The United States placed Native Americans on reservations. There are about 310 reservations in the United States. Not all tribes have them. Laws on tribal lands vary because tribes have tribal sovereignty. That’s why some tribes have built casinos. Most reservations are in the mid-west, where land is unsuitable for agriculture. The quality of life on some reservations is very poor. There are issues of infant mortality, life expectancy, nutrition and poverty, and alcohol and drug abuse.
history map A map that shows how a place looked at an earlier time
culture A way of life shared by members of a group; the behaviors and beliefs characteristic to a particular social, ethnic, or age group. THE TEN INDIAN COMMANDMENTS! Treat the Earth and all that dwell thereon with respect! Remain close to the Great Spirit Show great respect for your fellow beings Work together for the benefit of all mankind! Give assistance and kindness wherever needed Do what you know to be right Look after the well-being of mind and body Dedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good Be truthful and honest at all times Take full responsibility for your actions.....
preserve Keeping things alive; like in a museum You can preserve nature.You can preserve jelly. You can preserve things in a museum!
sovereign Tribal government separate from the federal or national government Tribal sovereignty in the United States refers to the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States of America. The federal government recognizes tribal nations as "domestic dependent nations" and has established a number of laws attempting to clarify the relationship between the federal, state, and tribal governments. The Constitution and later federal laws grant to tribal nations more sovereignty than is granted to states or other local jurisdictions, yet do not grant full sovereignty equivalent to foreign nations, hence the term "domestic dependent nations".United States of America
sovereign Tribal sovereignty map of the United States
constitution A written set of laws that tell how a government works
tribal council A group of leaders elected by tribe members
treaty An agreement between groups or countries 1851 – 1852 – 18 treaties were negotiated between the U.S. and Indian tribes. 1852 – The U.S. Senate rejected all of them and Indians were moved to temporary reservations. Early 1900s – Reformers petitioned congress to provide land to homeless Indians. California purchased 9,000 acres that eventually became 50 Rancherias. Originally, the small pieces of land were meant to provide housing for homeless and landless adult Indians, but they evolved to have their own tribal governments. 1953 – California Rancheria Act called for the termination of federal trusteeship for the Indians of California. 38 tribes were terminated and they were encouraged to assimilate with mainstream society. 1973 – Indian Self Determination and Education Act allowed tribes to regain federal recognition. Today, 104 tribes are recognized in California.