4Daniel Webster…“I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but as an American… I speak for the preservation of the Union.”*March 7, 1850
5U.S. Expansion means…LET’S fight amongst ourselves over the new land!!!- The issue of SLAVERY in new lands divides us… NORTH vs. SOUTH- The Missouri Compromise (1820) had kept things equal between N and S- What would come of the new lands acquired in the Mexican Cession?
6Wilmot Proviso-David Wilmot (anti-slavery Democrat) passes the Wilmot Proviso in the House of Representatives, outlawing slavery in all land acquired from Mexico- Senate defeats the bill (North and South representation was equal)
7Sectionalism- People are more loyal to their state or region than to the country as a whole.- How do Southerners feel?- There way of life is being threatened!-How do Northerners feel?- Abolitionists - slavery is morally wrong
8Lewis Cass- Lewis Cass of Michigan believes that the voters who live in a territory should decide whether the states that they form should be slave or free.- When the people rule, you have…- POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
9ELECTION of 1848 - Democrats (strength in the South) nominate… - LEWIS CASS (Michigan)- Whigs (strength in the North) nominate…- Zachary Taylor (Mex. War hero) that owned a plantation in Louisiana with more than 100 slaves (Fillmore, a NY moderate, is his running mate)
10ELECTION of 1848 - Free-Soil party - Why does it form? - Some Northerners will not back a slaveholder!- “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men!”- Former President, Martin Van Buren, is their man
11ELECTION of 1848 - Taylor is the winner!!! - Free Soil party receives an impressive number of votes…- Slave issue matters to the people!- Political parties need to listen to the people!
12California - By end of 1849, 95,000 people have “rushed” to California - Convention in fall of 1849 involves adoption of constitution prohibiting slavery- Free states already had majority in the House, and now they would have it in the Senate.- Southern leaders threaten to secede
14John C. Calhoun- Argues that continued anti-slavery legislation by the North would lead to eventual rule by African Americans- He warns Americans about a race war- Many slaveholding Southerners disagree with Calhoun, but some do agree
16Compromise of 1850 - Henry Clay is the man!!! - He’s the “Great Compromiser”- Worked out Missouri Comp. of 1820
17Compromise of 1850- Calhoun rejects any compromise as unfair to the South and believes that the North has already been too hostile- Webster gives a speech in favor of the compromise- Clay’s rival supports his attempt to preserve the Union- Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois) creates five bills out of Clay’s work (pass in Sept. of 1850)*Taylor may not have approved, but he had died in July… Fillmore signs the bills
18Compromise of 1850- Webster says, “I can now sleep… the Union stands firm.”- MANY SOUTHERNERS STILL WANT SECESSION!!!!!
19Moving Closer to Conflict Essential Q’s… How do Northerners react to the Fugitive Slave Act?Why does the Kansas-Nebraska Act cause bloodshed?How does Dred Scott affect slavery in the territories?
28Kansas-Nebraska Act - Stephen A. Douglas proposes this… - Divide the Nebraska Territory into Nebraska and Kansas- each would have popular sovereignty- President Pierce (Democrat elected in1852) supports this and helps it getpassed- Southerners envision slaveholdersmoving in from Missouri
29Kansas-Nebraska Act - Northerners are NOT happy… - It cancels the Missouri Compromise- It opens the possibility of more slave statesAND…THE RACE IS ON!!! Move. Move. Move.
30Kansas-Nebraska Act - Violence in Kansas.. - Lawrence is a “free-soil” stronghold- Border Ruffians move in from Missouri - vote illegally for pro-slavery- What were the “black laws”?- Ruffians and Pro-Slavery advocates loot, burn and kill in Lawrence- John Brown comes for revenge and kills 5 pro-slavery settlers- 200 die in Bleeding Kansas
34Dred ScottSupreme Court (Roger B. Taney) says that Dred Scott cannot sue, b/c he’s not a citizen-ALSO… Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional (banning slavery in territories would require an amendment)
35A New Political Party- Republican Party (new again) - state-level Republicans, abolitionists, Free-Soilers, anti-Nebraska Whigs and Democrats- John C. Fremont- Democratic Party (southerners) - James Buchanan (PA) - Popular Sovereignty- Know-Nothing - Millard Fillmore
36Lincoln - Douglas 1858 - Illinois Senate Race - DEBATES - It’s all about SLAVERY- Popular Sovereignty vs. Morals- Lincoln’s House Divided speech- Debate about Dred Scott- Lincoln loses the race, but he gains much recognition and respect
37John Brown Attacks at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (1859) - Occupied an armory- Seized a nearby rifle factory- Wanted to start a slave revolt- Brown refused to flee when he could have escaped- Robert E. Lee was sent to capture Brown- 10 of his men (2 of his sons) were killed* Many mixed feelings about Brown
39Election of 1860- Democratic Party split between Douglas and Breckinridge (Kentucky)- Douglas - Popular Sovereignty- Breckinridge - Dred Scott- Republican… LINCOLN* Lincoln wins and the South is MAD!!
40Preface I “Peculiar institution.” Jackson – “I would rather die in the last ditch than see the Union disunited.”Calhoun – “The Union – next to our liberty, most dear.”
41Preface II“We began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a ‘sacred right of government.’ These principles cannot stand together.” - LINCOLN
42620,000 Americans died in the Civil War What were they fighting over? Chapter 1620,000 Americans died in the Civil WarWhat were they fighting over?
43NORTH ADVANTAGES: More PEOPLE More SUPPLIES More RAILROAD More MONEY Strong NAVYDISADVANTAGES:Divided public opinionTroops away from homeInept, indecisive commanders (at first)
44SouthADVANTAGES:Defending HOMES, FAMILIES, LAND, WAY OF LIFE (liberty)Skilled, effective commandersUnited and MotivatedFamiliar landDISADVANTAGES:Ag. Economy (lacked supplies for war)No army at first, and no navyNo National Government at first(see North Advantages)