Presentation on theme: "Road to CIVIL WAR 1850 - 1860. Settling Differences Essential Q’s… Why did the Mexican Cession divide the North and South? How did Northerners and Southerners."— Presentation transcript:
Road to CIVIL WAR
Settling Differences Essential Q’s… Why did the Mexican Cession divide the North and South? How did Northerners and Southerners try to settle their differences?
Who Am I ?
Daniel Webster… “I wish to speak today, not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man, but as an American… I speak for the preservation of the Union.” *March 7, 1850
U.S. Expansion means… LET’S fight amongst ourselves over the new land!!! - The issue of SLAVERY in new lands divides us… NORTH vs. SOUTH - The Missouri Compromise (1820) had kept things equal between N and S - What would come of the new lands acquired in the Mexican Cession?
Wilmot Proviso -David Wilmot (anti-slavery Democrat) passes the Wilmot Proviso in the House of Representatives, outlawing slavery in all land acquired from Mexico - Senate defeats the bill (North and South representation was equal)
Sectionalism - People are more loyal to their state or region than to the country as a whole. - How do Southerners feel? - There way of life is being threatened! -How do Northerners feel? - Abolitionists - slavery is morally wrong
Lewis Cass - Lewis Cass of Michigan believes that the voters who live in a territory should decide whether the states that they form should be slave or free. - When the people rule, you have… - POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
ELECTION of Democrats (strength in the South) nominate… - LEWIS CASS (Michigan) - Whigs (strength in the North) nominate… - Zachary Taylor (Mex. War hero) that owned a plantation in Louisiana with more than 100 slaves (Fillmore, a NY moderate, is his running mate)
ELECTION of Free-Soil party - Why does it form? - Some Northerners will not back a slaveholder! - “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men!” - Former President, Martin Van Buren, is their man
ELECTION of Taylor is the winner!!! - Free Soil party receives an impressive number of votes… - Slave issue matters to the people! - Political parties need to listen to the people!
California - By end of 1849, 95,000 people have “rushed” to California - Convention in fall of 1849 involves adoption of constitution prohibiting slavery - Free states already had majority in the House, and now they would have it in the Senate. - Southern leaders threaten to secede
Who Am I ?
John C. Calhoun - Argues that continued anti-slavery legislation by the North would lead to eventual rule by African Americans - He warns Americans about a race war - Many slaveholding Southerners disagree with Calhoun, but some do agree
Who Am I ?
Compromise of Henry Clay is the man!!! - He’s the “Great Compromiser” - Worked out Missouri Comp. of 1820
Compromise of Calhoun rejects any compromise as unfair to the South and believes that the North has already been too hostile - Webster gives a speech in favor of the compromise - Clay’s rival supports his attempt to preserve the Union - Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois) creates five bills out of Clay’s work (pass in Sept. of 1850) *Taylor may not have approved, but he had died in July… Fillmore signs the bills
Compromise of Webster says, “I can now sleep… the Union stands firm.” - MANY SOUTHERNERS STILL WANT SECESSION!!!!!
Moving Closer to Conflict Essential Q’s… How do Northerners react to the Fugitive Slave Act? Why does the Kansas-Nebraska Act cause bloodshed? How does Dred Scott affect slavery in the territories?
Kansas-Nebraska Act - Stephen A. Douglas proposes this… - Divide the Nebraska Territory into Nebraska and Kansas - each would have popular sovereignty - President Pierce (Democrat elected in 1852) supports this and helps it get passed - Southerners envision slaveholders moving in from Missouri
Kansas-Nebraska Act - Northerners are NOT happy… - It cancels the Missouri Compromise - It opens the possibility of more slave states AND… THE RACE IS ON!!! Move. Move. Move.
- Violence in Kansas.. - Lawrence is a “free-soil” stronghold - Border Ruffians move in from Missouri - vote illegally for pro-slavery - What were the “black laws”? - Ruffians and Pro-Slavery advocates loot, burn and kill in Lawrence - John Brown comes for revenge and kills 5 pro-slavery settlers die in Bleeding Kansas
Violence in the Senate - Charles Sumner denounces Andrew Butler and supporters of the violence in Kansas - Preston Brooks takes revenge and beats him with a cane!!!
Violence in the Senate
Dred Scott Supreme Court (Roger B. Taney) says that Dred Scott cannot sue, b/c he’s not a citizen -ALSO… Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional (banning slavery in territories would require an amendment)
A New Political Party - Republican Party (new again) - state- level Republicans, abolitionists, Free- Soilers, anti-Nebraska Whigs and Democrats - John C. Fremont - Democratic Party (southerners) - James Buchanan (PA) - Popular Sovereignty - Know-Nothing - Millard Fillmore
Lincoln - Douglas Illinois Senate Race - DEBATES - It’s all about SLAVERY - Popular Sovereignty vs. Morals - Lincoln’s House Divided speech - Debate about Dred Scott - Lincoln loses the race, but he gains much recognition and respect
John Brown Attacks at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (1859) - Occupied an armory - Seized a nearby rifle factory - Wanted to start a slave revolt - Brown refused to flee when he could have escaped - Robert E. Lee was sent to capture Brown - 10 of his men (2 of his sons) were killed * Many mixed feelings about Brown
Election of Democratic Party split between Douglas and Breckinridge (Kentucky) - Douglas - Popular Sovereignty - Breckinridge - Dred Scott - Republican… LINCOLN * Lincoln wins and the South is MAD!!
Preface I “Peculiar institution.” Jackson – “I would rather die in the last ditch than see the Union disunited.” Calhoun – “The Union – next to our liberty, most dear.”
Preface II “We began by declaring that all men are created equal; but now from that beginning we have run down to the other declaration, that for some men to enslave others is a ‘sacred right of government.’ These principles cannot stand together.” - LINCOLN
Chapter 1 620,000 Americans died in the Civil War What were they fighting over?
NORTH ADVANTAGES: More PEOPLE More SUPPLIES More RAILROAD More MONEY Strong NAVY DISADVANTAGES: Divided public opinion Troops away from home Inept, indecisive commanders (at first)
South ADVANTAGES: Defending HOMES, FAMILIES, LAND, WAY OF LIFE (liberty) Skilled, effective commanders United and Motivated Familiar land DISADVANTAGES: Ag. Economy (lacked supplies for war) No army at first, and no navy No National Government at first (see North Advantages)
Northern STRATEGIES Winfield Scott’s ANACONDA PLAN –CAPTURE RICHMOND –CONTROL THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER –BLOCKADE SOUTHERN PORTS
Southern STRATEGIES DEFENSE!!! Offense on Small Scale Capture DC Get HELP from Europe Win in the North (Gettysburg)