Presentation on theme: "Why do we have or need govt.? James Madison: “If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” Without rules, there can be no freedom. To do things."— Presentation transcript:
Why do we have or need govt.? James Madison: “If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” Without rules, there can be no freedom. To do things that we cannot do individually (defense, roads, hospitals, etc.)
Government is the institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies. Institution: foundation, organization Examples: U.S. Congress Public policies: course of action; a plan Examples: cutting taxes 10%; reducing global warming
Legislative power (create law) Examples: U.S. Congress, QCSD School Board Executive power (enforce law) Examples: U.S. President QCSD Superintendent Judicial power (“evaluate” law) Example: U.S. Supreme Court Governments must have POWER in order to create and carry out public policies, but there are different kinds of power.
The Kinds of Power In Action… 1. The U.S. Congress (Legislative Branch) passes a law that says that all firearms are banned in this country. 2. The U.S. President (Executive Branch) and all law enforcement offers therefore arrest those who have firearms. 3. The U.S. Supreme Court (Judicial Branch) evaluates the law. Because the Court determines that the law violates the Constitution, then the Court throws the law out.
How can these powers be exercised? By a single person or by a small group, which is called a dictatorship, who combine all 3 powers into one person/group. By a majority of the people, which is called a democracy.
Power Must Be Exercised in a STATE Characteristics of a State: 1. Population 2. Territory (Land) 3. Sovereignty (absolute control; authority to rule) 4. Government
State? QCHS Territory: YES (600 Park Ave., Qtown) Government: YES (School Board, Serge!) Population: YES (1300 students) Sovereignty: NO (Pennsylvania, U.S. govts. higher) Pennsylvania: NO United States of America: YES
Iraq Territory: land; clear borders Population: 28 mil Government: democracy; elected leaders in charge Sovereignty: not until we leave… (the govt. isn’t in charge of its own destiny)
Somalia Territory: land; clear borders Population: 10 mil Government: nope; no “leaders” which are recognized throughout the country (perfect example of a “failed state” run by local warlords) Sovereignty: yes (no interference by other countries)
Territory: 110 acres; clear borders Population: 850-1000 Government: pope is the monarch/king Sovereignty: Lateran Treaty (1929) recognizes Vatican’s total independence from Italy.
Where did states come from? How did we get from no government to “the state”? Force Theory: one strong man or group forced others to submit to them Evolutionary Theory: family clans clan leader
Where did states come from? How did we get from no government to the state? Divine Right Theory: God gave those of royal birth a “divine right” to rule Social Contract Theory: people of a state agree to come together to form a govt.
Our Contract THE CONSTITUTION (Constitution = agreement) PREAMBLE (Intro.) to the Constitution: lays out the 6 purposes of our govt.
Form a more perfect union To unite the states together into one country that works together To unite the country (all races, all religions, all classes as one)
Establish justice Make sure everyone is treated fairly
Insure domestic tranquility Keep law and order in the country (Domestic: within a country Tranquility: peace)
Provide for the common defense Protect the country from foreign enemies
Promote the general welfare Create programs, laws, policies, etc., that make our lives easier and better (schools, hospitals, etc.)
Secure the blessings of liberty Guarantee our freedom and rights