Compromise of 1850 California – free state Utah and New Mexico territories – popular sovereignty No slave trade in Washington, D.C. Strict enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act Settlement of boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Expressed moral outrage at the institution of slavery and the destructiveness on both whites and African- Americans Humanized slavery & increased anti-slavery sentiment in north; was banned in south When Stowe met President Lincoln in 1862, he is said to have exclaimed, "So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!"
Kansas – Nebraska Act 1854 Applied popular sovereignty to Kansas and Nebraska territories Previously designated “free” territories – now the possibility that slavery could exist to north of line 36°30΄
Bleeding Kansas Mini civil war when vote on fate of Kansas was taken “Border Ruffians” 200+ killed, million of dollars in property damage Vote → Pro-slavery 2 governments formed (1 free, 1 slave)
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Background – Dred Scott, slave, taken into free territory by owner, then returned to slave territory. Scott sued owner believing that his presence in free territory made him a free man Constitutional Issue – Was Dred Scott a citizen & legally entitled to use courts? Did his presence in a free territory make him a free man?
Dred Scott v. Sanford Decision – Slave defined as property (chatle), not citizen. Freeing him would be violation of 5 th Amendment due process – Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because designating “free territory” could deprive an owner of his “property” Importance – Step closer to Civil War (Congress can’t legislate, Presidents unwilling to intervene, now Court refused to free Dred Scott & thousands in same situation) – Dred Scott case Dred Scott case
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Illinois Senate race Abraham Lincoln: Republican, relative unknown -- opposed the extension of slavery into the territories (not abolitionist); “A house divided …” “This gov’t cannot endure permanently half slave and half free”. Stephen Douglas: Democrat, incumbent U.S. Senator in Illinois – believed in popular sovereignty – “Freeport doctrine” – slavery could not exist if local citizens did not pass and enforce laws for maintaining it
Importance of Lincoln/Douglas Debate Even though Douglas won the election, he lost support from southern Democrats Lincoln gained national recognition and became a leading contender for the Presidential race in 1860
John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry Brown was a radical abolitionist Plan was to arm the slaves for a rebellion using weapons taken from the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry Brown was captured, tried and executed for his role → martyr for the cause The south feared the north had intentions of using slave revolts to destroy the south → harsher treatment of slaves
“Battle Hymn of the Republic” or “Glory, Glory Hallelujah” – originally was “John Brown’s Song” – John Brown's body lies a-mouldering in the grave; – His soul's marching on! (Chorus) Glory, halle—hallelujah! Glory, halle— hallelujah! Gloryhallelujah Glory, halle—hallelujah! his soul's marching on! – He's gone to be a soldier in the army of the Lord! – His soul's marching on! (Chorus) John Brown, Abolitionist: “The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights” – David S. Reynolds
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Election of 1860 CandidatePolitical PartyPlatform LincolnRepublicanNo extension of slavery; RR; Homestead Act DouglasNorthern DemocraticPopular Sovereignty BreckinridgeSouthern DemocraticStates’ Rights BellConstitutional UnionProtect the Constitution and the Union of all states
Lincoln’s Election leads to Secession States’ Rights theory – the states created the union of states, they can break it apart by secession South Carolina leads the way with secession – followed by 6 other states (Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas) – Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia would secede early in 1861
President Buchanan “lame duck” – from November of 1860 – March of 1861 Buchanan believed states seceded because Lincoln was elected – let Lincoln deal with it Buchanan believed he as President had no constitutional authority to respond to secession
Result of Buchanan’s Inability to Act Southern states secede Form the Confederate States of America Wrote a constitution (patterned on US constitution) that supported states’ rights philosophy Elected representatives to the Confederate government ALL THIS WAS DONE BEFORE LINCOLN TOOK THE OATH OF OFFICE