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CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED

2 Bullet points pg. 505 Read pgs

3 CHAPTER 14 I can understand how the question of admission of new states to the union fueled the debate over slavery and states rights.

4

5 Missouri Compromise (1820) seemed to stop sectional difference
CHAPTER 14 Missouri Compromise (1820) seemed to stop sectional difference 1820 – 1848, 8 new states 4 slave – 4 free (15 each)

6 WHY? CHAPTER 14 Mo. Compromise did not apply to 1848 Mexican Cession
Fearing a new slave state, Rep. David Wilmot proposed law banning slavery from Mexican Cession Passed the House of Rep. But not Senate WHY?

7 15 free states 15 slave states TIE VOTE IN SENATE

8 SOUTHERN SLAVERY SUPPORTERS FEARED A LEGAL ATTACK ON SLAVERY
CONSEQUENCE #1 SOUTHERN SLAVERY SUPPORTERS FEARED A LEGAL ATTACK ON SLAVERY

9 CONSEQUENCE #2 A NEW POLITICAL PARTY

10

11 POLITICS 2 Parties DEMOCRATS WHIGS

12 Neither party took firm stand on slavery
POLITICS Neither party took firm stand on slavery WHY?

13 Both wanted southern votes.
POLITICS Both wanted southern votes.

14 Democratic Presidential candidate, Sen. Lewis Cass proposed a solution
POLITICS Democratic Presidential candidate, Sen. Lewis Cass proposed a solution Popular sovereignty

15 POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY People in the state or territory would vote on slavery, not their elected representatives

16 Mexican Cession land would be FREE SOIL – NO SLAVERY
CONSEQUENCE Anti slavery Democrats and Whigs for new political party – THE FREE SOIL PARTY PLATFORM Mexican Cession land would be FREE SOIL – NO SLAVERY

17 Free Soil – Martin Van Buren Democrats - Lewis Cass
CANDIDATES Free Soil – Martin Van Buren Democrats - Lewis Cass Whigs – Zachary Taylor

18 What territory wanted into the United States? Why?

19 All the Gold in California
1848 – Gold discovered in California Grows quickly Wants into the U.S.

20 Most of CA. is north of MO. Compromise line
Problems Most of CA. is north of MO. Compromise line South fears anti slavery majority in Senate Threatens to SECEDE if CA. is admitted as free state

21 Northerners want slave TRADE abolished in Wash. D.C.
Other Issues Northerners want slave TRADE abolished in Wash. D.C. Southerners wants escaped slaves (FUGITIVES) returned WHAT DO WE DO? .

22 Henry Clay has idea, the Compromise of 1850
His ideas are opposed by John C. Calhoun

23 The Great Debate Calhoun is against compromise. He said,
A. CA. in U.S. as a free state threatens the South B. There are only 2 ways to protect the South 1. Constitutional Amendment 2. Secession

24 The Great Debate Daniel Webster said, A. Called to end fighting
B. Supported Clay’s plan

25 Pg. 484 Calhoun

26 Translation - Calhoun Arrest it to stop something Abolition
getting rid of slavery Secession leaving the Union Submission give up Resistance fight

27 What does it mean? We want a Constitutional amendment guaranteeing slavery in the south and the Territories forever If we don’t get that, we quit the Union If you attack us, we will fight

28 Daniel Webster Pg 484

29 Translation - Webster Preservation to keep as is Restoration
to return to the original

30 What does it mean? The Union must stay together Accept the compromise Let’s go back to good feelings among all the states

31 Bullet Points pg. 505 Read pgs

32 PREDICT What is going to happen?

33 Ch 14 Sec 2 – Compromises Fail
I CAN UNDERSTAND THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 AND WHY IT FAILED

34 Compromise of 1850 5 laws California admitted free state
Slave trade banned in D.C. Congress could not regulate slave trade between slave states Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession Fugitive slave law

35 Fugitive slave law Accused slaves arrested by government No trial
Only white persons testimony Every citizen required to help

36 President Zachary Taylor who opposes, dies
Millard Fillmore, the new President signs it into law

37

38 OBJECTIONS Northerners objected to fugitive slave act WHY? 1. Black testimony was not admissible 2. White slave owners testimony as proof

39 Slave catchers were threatened Runaways were taken to Canada
REACTIONS Slave catchers were threatened Runaways were taken to Canada Juries found helpers innocent

40 Fictional account of slavery Put down by South
REACTIONS BOOKS UNCLE TOMS CABIN Fictional account of slavery Put down by South Praised by North (pg 448)

41

42 Northerners did not like -slavery continuing with
RESULTS Everyone complained Northerners did not like -slavery continuing with possibility of expansion - Fugitive Slave Law

43 Southerners did not like - Jury Nullification - Slave catchers being
RESULTS Southerners did not like - Jury Nullification - Slave catchers being threatened - Slaves escaping to Canada

44 A NEW WRINKLE Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas wants a railroad through ILL & MO to the west RR would pass through Kansas & Nebraska These areas are closed to slavery (MO. Comp) Southerners screamed!!!

45 Open Kansas & Nebraska to Popular Sovereignty Southerners happy
Douglas’ Plan Open Kansas & Nebraska to Popular Sovereignty Southerners happy Northerners screamed – This undid the MO. Comp.

46 IS IT?? Kansas – Nebraska Act - 1852
Kansas & Nebraska Territories open to Popular Sovereignty Passed by Congress – Signed by Pres. Believed to be answer to slavery question IS IT??

47 WHAT HAPPENED? RESULTS Proponents and opponents flooded into Kansas
Of 3,000 registered voters, 8,000 votes were counted 3 non slavery vs. 36 slavery representatives were elected WHAT HAPPENED?

48 VOTER FRUAD WHAT HAPPENED THEN?

49 EACH CLAIMED AUTHORITY
2 GOVERNMENTS ANTI SLAVERY GOVERNMENT PRO SLAVERY GOVERNMENT EACH CLAIMED AUTHORITY WHAT HAPPENED THEN??

50 VIOLENCE

51 Proslavery Sheriff leads 800 men and attacks anti slavery Lawrence Kansas

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53 Anti slavery activist, John Brown attacks Pottawatomie Creek Kansas

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55 PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT?

56 Read pgs Bullet Points pg. 505

57 Ch 14 Sec 3 I can understand how the Lincoln – Douglas debates and John Brown’s raid increased tensions between North and South

58 A New Political Party 1854 – Whig party split apart
New party called Republican Party Attracted Northern Democrats and Free Soil party members Committed to stopping spread of slavery

59 Growth 1854 105 seats in Congress of 245
All but two northern state legislatures 1856 Ran John C. Freemont for President Won 11 of 16 free states James Buchanan elected

60 What is important about Wisconsin and Illinois?
Dred Scott Decision 1857 Dred Scott was a slave Had lived in Wisconsin and Illinois What is important about Wisconsin and Illinois?

61 Answer Illinois and Wisconsin are free states Dred Scott wants his freedom even though he is now in Missouri

62 Decision African Americans are NOT citizens Cannot sue in Court Slaves are property so it doesn’t matter where they lived Property belongs to the owner

63 Decision Congress does not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories MO Compromise illegal

64 Reaction Southerners pleased Northerners shocked
A young Illinois lawyer speaks out The idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American History

65 Who is this masked man?

66 LINCOLN Not an abolitionist Was anti slavery
Served in Illinois House of Reps. Served 1 term in U.S. House of Rep. Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act Joined Republican party

67 Republicans choose Lincoln to run for Senate Lincoln speaks
1858 Republicans choose Lincoln to run for Senate Lincoln speaks turn to page 496

68 Debates Democrats choose Stephen Douglas Lincoln debates him
Lincoln and Douglas both courted Mary Todd Lincoln won this one

69

70 Debates LINCOLN DOUGLAS If slavery is not wrong nothing is wrong
Slavery should not expand to western territories Slavery will die on its own Blacks and whites are not equal but have rights DOUGLAS Popular sovereignty is right Illinois chose no slavery, MO chose slavery Lincoln is a dangerous abolitionist and wants black equality

71 And the winner is DOUGLAS

72 1859 John Brown driven out of Kansas
Attacks Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry VA. Wants guns to give to blacks to stage a revolt Said the Bible guided his actions Captured – tried – convicted - hanged

73 Reaction People in South saw justice served People in North considered him a hero People in South feared Northern response

74 Who or what is John Brown Is it this?

75 OR IS IT THIS 75

76 76

77 77

78 Are either completely right? Are either completely wrong?
Right – Wrong - Best Are either completely right? Are either completely wrong? Which is best? 78

79 Bullet Points pg. 505 Read pg

80 THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR
Ch 14 Sec 4 THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR

81 I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN SPARKED THE SECESSION OF SOUTHERN STATES

82 Election of 1860 Lincoln popular because of L-D debates
Democrats split North – Douglas – Supports Popular Sovereignty South V.P. John Breckinridge – Supports slavery even though secession Constitution Union Party – John Bell – Against secession and supports slavery

83

84 THINK!!! What happens to a political party when its vote is split? What happens when there is a third party? Is it any wonder Lincoln won?

85 Secession Chronology Nov. 1860 – Lincoln elected
Dec – S. Carolina Jan – Miss., FLA., ALA., GEO., LA. Feb. – TX Feb. C.S.A. born - New Constitution. Jefferson Davis made President

86 Secession Chronology March 4th 1861 – Lincoln inaugurated
March 6th – CSA asks for 100,000 volunteers April 12, CSA attacks Fort Sumter in Charleston April 13, Fort Sumter surrenders April 16, Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers

87 Secession Chronology April 17, VA secedes May – AK., TN., NC.

88 Why the war?

89 Why the war? Slavery Sectionalism Nationalism / Honor States rights
Free soil Tariffs Election of Lincoln


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