Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED. Bullet points pg. 505Read pgs. 482-485."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED
Bullet points pg. 505Read pgs
CHAPTER 14 I can understand how the question of admission of new states to the union fueled the debate over slavery and states rights.
CHAPTER 14 Missouri Compromise (1820) seemed to stop sectional difference 1820 – 1848, 8 new states 4 slave – 4 free (15 each)
CHAPTER 14 Mo. Compromise did not apply to 1848 Mexican Cession Fearing a new slave state, Rep. David Wilmot proposed law banning slavery from Mexican Cession Passed the House of Rep. But not Senate WHY?
15 free states 15 slave states TIE VOTE IN SENATE
CONSEQUENCE #1 SOUTHERN SLAVERY SUPPORTERS FEARED A LEGAL ATTACK ON SLAVERY
CONSEQUENCE #2 A NEW POLITICAL PARTY
POLITICS 2 Parties DEMOCRATS WHIGS
POLITICS Neither party took firm stand on slavery WHY?
POLITICS Both wanted southern votes.
POLITICS Democratic Presidential candidate, Sen. Lewis Cass proposed a solution Popular sovereignty
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY People in the state or territory would vote on slavery, not their elected representatives
CONSEQUENCE Anti slavery Democrats and Whigs for new political party – THE FREE SOIL PARTY PLATFORM Mexican Cession land would be FREE SOIL – NO SLAVERY
CANDIDATES Free Soil – Martin Van Buren Democrats - Lewis Cass Whigs – Zachary Taylor
What territory wanted into the United States? Why?
All the Gold in California 1848 – Gold discovered in California Grows quickly Wants into the U.S.
Problems Most of CA. is north of MO. Compromise line South fears anti slavery majority in Senate Threatens to SECEDE if CA. is admitted as free state
Other Issues Northerners want slave TRADE abolished in Wash. D.C. Southerners wants escaped slaves (FUGITIVES) returned WHAT DO WE DO?.
COMPROMISE Henry Clay has idea, the Compromise of 1850 His ideas are opposed by John C. Calhoun
The Great Debate Calhoun is against compromise. He said, A. CA. in U.S. as a free state threatens the South B. There are only 2 ways to protect the South 1. Constitutional Amendment 2. Secession
The Great Debate Daniel Webster said, A. Called to end fighting B. Supported Clay’s plan
Calhoun Pg. 484
Translation - Calhoun Arrest it to stop something Abolition getting rid of slavery Secession leaving the Union Submission give up Resistance fight
What does it mean? 1.We want a Constitutional amendment guaranteeing slavery in the south and the Territories forever 2.If we don’t get that, we quit the Union 3.If you attack us, we will fight
Daniel Webster Pg 484
Translation - Webster Preservation to keep as is Restoration to return to the original
What does it mean? 1.The Union must stay together 2.Accept the compromise 3.Let’s go back to good feelings among all the states
Bullet Points pg. 505Read pgs
PREDICT What is going to happen?
Ch 14 Sec 2 – Compromises Fail I CAN UNDERSTAND THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 AND WHY IT FAILED
Compromise of laws California admitted free state Slave trade banned in D.C. Congress could not regulate slave trade between slave states Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession Fugitive slave law
Accused slaves arrested by government No trial Only white persons testimony Every citizen required to help
President Zachary Taylor who opposes, dies Millard Fillmore, the new President signs it into law
OBJECTIONS Northerners objected to fugitive slave act WHY? 1.Black testimony was not admissible 2.White slave owners testimony as proof
REACTIONS Slave catchers were threatened Runaways were taken to Canada Juries found helpers innocent
REACTIONS BOOKS UNCLE TOMS CABIN Fictional account of slavery Put down by South Praised by North (pg 448)
RESULTS Everyone complained Northerners did not like -slavery continuing with possibility of expansion - Fugitive Slave Law
RESULTS Southerners did not like - Jury Nullification - Slave catchers being threatened - Slaves escaping to Canada
A NEW WRINKLE Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas wants a railroad through ILL & MO to the west RR would pass through Kansas & Nebraska These areas are closed to slavery (MO. Comp) Southerners screamed!!!
Douglas’ Plan Open Kansas & Nebraska to Popular Sovereignty Southerners happy Northerners screamed – This undid the MO. Comp.
Kansas – Nebraska Act Kansas & Nebraska Territories open to Popular Sovereignty Passed by Congress – Signed by Pres. Believed to be answer to slavery question IS IT??
RESULTS Proponents and opponents flooded into Kansas Of 3,000 registered voters, 8,000 votes were counted 3 non slavery vs. 36 slavery representatives were elected WHAT HAPPENED?
VOTER FRUAD WHAT HAPPENED THEN?
2 GOVERNMENTS ANTI SLAVERY GOVERNMENT PRO SLAVERY GOVERNMENT EACH CLAIMED AUTHORITY WHAT HAPPENED THEN??
Proslavery Sheriff leads 800 men and attacks anti slavery Lawrence Kansas
Anti slavery activist, John Brown attacks Pottawatomie Creek Kansas
PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT?
Bullet Points pg. 505 Read pgs
Ch 14 Sec 3 I can understand how the Lincoln – Douglas debates and John Brown’s raid increased tensions between North and South
A New Political Party 1854 – Whig party split apart New party called Republican Party Attracted Northern Democrats and Free Soil party members Committed to stopping spread of slavery
Growth seats in Congress of 245 All but two northern state legislatures 1856 Ran John C. Freemont for President Won 11 of 16 free states James Buchanan elected
Dred Scott Decision 1857 Dred Scott was a slave Had lived in Wisconsin and Illinois What is important about Wisconsin and Illinois?
Answer Illinois and Wisconsin are free states Dred Scott wants his freedom even though he is now in Missouri
Decision African Americans are NOT citizens Cannot sue in Court Slaves are property so it doesn’t matter where they lived Property belongs to the owner
Decision Congress does not have the power to prohibit slavery in the territories MO Compromise illegal
Reaction Southerners pleased Northerners shocked A young Illinois lawyer speaks out The idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American History
Who is this masked man?
LINCOLN Not an abolitionist Was anti slavery Served in Illinois House of Reps. Served 1 term in U.S. House of Rep. Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act Joined Republican party
1858 Republicans choose Lincoln to run for Senate Lincoln speaks turn to page 496
Debates Democrats choose Stephen Douglas Lincoln debates him Lincoln and Douglas both courted Mary Todd Lincoln won this one
Debates LINCOLN If slavery is not wrong nothing is wrong Slavery should not expand to western territories Slavery will die on its own Blacks and whites are not equal but have rights DOUGLAS Popular sovereignty is right Illinois chose no slavery, MO chose slavery Lincoln is a dangerous abolitionist and wants black equality
And the winner is DOUGLAS
1859 John Brown driven out of Kansas Attacks Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry VA. Wants guns to give to blacks to stage a revolt Said the Bible guided his actions Captured – tried – convicted - hanged
Reaction People in South saw justice served People in North considered him a hero People in South feared Northern response
John Brown Who or what is John Brown Is it this?
OR IS IT THIS
Right – Wrong - Best Are either completely right? Are either completely wrong? Which is best?
Bullet Points pg. 505 Read pg
Ch 14 Sec 4 THE COMING OF THE CIVIL WAR
I CAN UNDERSTAND HOW THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN SPARKED THE SECESSION OF SOUTHERN STATES
Election of 1860 Lincoln popular because of L-D debates Democrats split North – Douglas – Supports Popular Sovereignty South V.P. John Breckinridge – Supports slavery even though secession Constitution Union Party – John Bell – Against secession and supports slavery
THINK!!! What happens to a political party when its vote is split? What happens when there is a third party? Is it any wonder Lincoln won?
Secession Chronology Nov – Lincoln elected Dec – S. Carolina Jan – Miss., FLA., ALA., GEO., LA. Feb. – TX Feb. C.S.A. born - New Constitution. Jefferson Davis made President
Secession Chronology March 4th 1861 – Lincoln inaugurated March 6th – CSA asks for 100,000 volunteers April 12, CSA attacks Fort Sumter in Charleston April 13, Fort Sumter surrenders April 16, Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers
Secession Chronology April 17, VA secedes May – AK., TN., NC.
Why the war?
-Slavery -Sectionalism -Nationalism / Honor -States rights -Free soil -Tariffs -Election of Lincoln