Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR Notes 3THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WARConflicts over slavery and CompromisesSlavery in Louisiana Purchase?Manifest Destiny to 1850President James K. Polk—1845 to 1849Oregon TerritoryTexas Statehood--1845Mexican War to 1848US acquired the Mexican CessionTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo—1848Slavery in the Mexican Cession?Compromise of 1850Calif. Admitted as a free stateCreate 2 new territories = Popular SovereigntySouth: Enforce the Fugitive Slave LawNorth: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
2Kansas-Nebraska Act----1854 Gadsden PurchaseKansas-Nebraska ActStephen Douglas---build railroad in the NorthOrganize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular SovereigntyEffectsAbolitionists against itRuined the Missouri Compromiseled to violence----Bleeding KansasRepublican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slaverynotes 4
3Dared Scott—1857-----slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision notes 5Judicial ArgumentsDared Scott— slave sued for his freedomSupreme Court DecisionConstitution did not apply to slavesLegalized slavery in the U.S.All compromises were unconstitutionalJohn Brown’s RaidHarper’s FerryReactionsNorth---martyr for the abolitionist causeSouth---no other choice but secede
4South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860. Election of 1860Lincoln wins electionSouth Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860.10 other Southern States would secede in 1861formed the CSA---Confederate States of AmericaWhy?notes 6
7David WilmotCongressmanPennsylvania1846Wilmot ProvisoStatus of slavery already settled with Missouri Compromise?Wilmot proposed a resolution to prohibit slavery in all territory acquired from MexicoPassed the House but failed in the SenateImpactsReawakening of slavery controversySectional fragmentation of Democratic & Whig partiesFree Soil PartyPopular Sovereignty
9STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereigntylet the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not.Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850Calif. A free stateenforce Fugitive Slave LawPopular Sovereigntystop slave trade in Washington, D.C. (not slavery)Picture/S.Douglas
10Most intense debate in U.S. History “Great Triumvirate”Most intense debate in U.S. HistoryJohn C. CalhounNorth should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave LawSouth wanted Californiathreatened to secede from U.S.U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the SouthDaniel WebsterSecession is impractical & impossibleHow would we split the land?The military?Compromise at all costPreserve the UnionHenry ClayThe Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.Comp of 1850
11Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.Map Comp of 1850
12FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND Denounced by Abolitionists Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is publishedAbolitionists refuse to enforce the lawUnderground Railroad becomes more active
13Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. - Abraham Lincoln
14Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
16RESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWFugitive Slave LawRESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS“An immoral law makes it a man’s duty to break it, at every hazard. For virtue is the very self of every man. It is therefore a principle of law that an immoral contract is void, and that an immoral statute is void. The Fugitive Slave Law is a statute which enacts the crime of kidnapping, a crime on one footing with arson and murder. A man’s right to liberty is as inalienable as his right to life……” Ralph Waldo Emerson“3 millions of the American people are crushed under the American Union! The government gives them no protection– the government is their enemy, the government keeps them in chains! The Union which grinds them to the dust rests upon us, and with them we will struggle to overthrow it! The Constitution which subjects them to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to support. Our motto is, ‘No Union with Slaveholders’….We separate from them, to clear our skirts of innocent blood….and to hasten the downfall of slavery in America, and throughout the world!” William Lloyd Garrison
17Southerners threatened secession and war FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWSOUTHERNERS RESPONDSoutherners threatened secession and warBelieved it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law.5th AmendmentSupremacy Clause
181852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil
21KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or NorthStephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise.Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North.Popular SovereigntyKan. & Neb Act
23Map Bleeding KanBLEEDING KANSASKansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers.First violent outbreaks between north/south.First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856.Over 200 killed(Led by John Brown)Attacks by free-statesAttacks by pro-slavery states
24BLEEDING KANSASAfter the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in Bleeding Kansas.Bleeding Kan
25“The Crime Against Kansas” was sent canes with the words-“hit him again”Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA)Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
26Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 Northern Whigs.Northern Democrats.Free-Soilers.Know-Nothings.Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
27The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] Nativists Anti-Catholics Anti-immigrants1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC. “I Know Nothing”o
28REPUBLICAN PARTY Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery Formed to stop the expansion of slaveryREPUBLICAN PARTYDemocrats opposed the expansion of slaveryAbolitionistsNational Republican which become the Whigs.Know Nothing Partyagainst immigrationChart/Rep. Party
29The Republican Party was born in 1850s Republican PartyThe Republican Party(A) nominated Abraham Lincoln as its first presidential candidate in 1856 (B) took a strong stand against protective tariffs in the 1850s (C) was formed in response to the Compromise of 1850 (D) had both strong northern and southern wings in its first decade of existence (E) was comprised largely of former members of the Whig Party in the 1850sThe Republican Party was born inRipon, Wisconsin in 1854Answer: (E) was comprised largely of former members of the Whig Party in the 1850s Explanation: Formed in 1854 and comprised of a number of ex-Whigs, the Republican Party's first major position was in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act which opened western territories to popular sovereignty and voided the Missouri Compromise's restriction on slavery. It was almost exclusively a northern party in the 1850s, nominating John C. Frémont for president in 1856 and electing Abraham Lincoln in Republican economic policies included support for strong protective tariffs.
301856 Presidential Election √ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig
34Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue DRED SCOTT DECISIONSlave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states.His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave.He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time.Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue*Can a slave sue for his freedom? *Is a slave property? *Is slavery legal? *Did residence in a free state make Scott free? *Did Congress posses the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?
35Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision 6-3 Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property.They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution.Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying thatCongress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territoryMissouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutionalNorth refused to enforce Fugitive Slave LawFree states pass personal liberty laws.Republicans claim the decision is not bindingSoutherners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.Chart/Effect of Scott
36Reading/Scott decision DRED SCOTT DECISIONChief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted.“They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.”Reading/Scott decision
38Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas JOHN BROWNViolent abolitionistInvolved in the Bleeding KansasMurdered 5 pro-slavery men in KansasWanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South.Picture/J.Brown
39JOHN BROWNAttacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt.Picture/J.Brown
40Put on trial for treason. JOHN BROWNUnsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. LeePut on trial for treason.Picture/J.Brown
41Picture/J.Brown Hanging JOHN BROWNHe was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.”Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause.Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery.South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.Southern NationalismPicture/J.Brown Hanging
45John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry (20c)
46Illinois Senate Debates, 1858 The Lincoln-DouglasIllinois Senate Debates, 1858A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
47Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois 1858. LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATESLincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois 1858.The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860.Slavery was the issueLincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other.was against the expansion of slaveryDouglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people.Popular sovereigntyChart/L&D Debates
48LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860Picture/ L&D Debates
49Lincoln-Douglas Debates Which of the following is true of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates?(A) they resulted in Abraham Lincoln being selected as senator from Illinois (B) in them, Douglas developed the Freeport Doctrine as a talking point to support popular sovereignty (C) both Lincoln and Douglas consistently supported the decisions of the Supreme Court regarding slavery (D) during the debates Lincoln assured voters that slavery would never become legal in Illinois (E) they severely damaged Lincoln's attempt to build a national reputationAnswer: (B) in them, Douglas developed the Freeport Doctrine as a talking point to support popular sovereignty Explanation: Douglas expressed the concept of the Freeport Doctrine in the second debate. Essentially he argued that voters could restrict slavery from a new territory by voting against it during statehood constitutional conventions. "I answer emphatically, as Mr. Lincoln has heard me answer a hundred times from every stump in Illinois, that in my opinion the people of a Territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limits prior to the formation of a State constitution. " While losing the senate seat to Douglas, Lincoln built a national reputation as the debates become publicized and reprinted. Lincoln strongly opposed the Dred Scott decision and warned that the direction the U.S. was headed with both the Kansas-Nebraska Act and Dred Scott might even make Illinois a slave state in the future.
50In the presidential election of 1860 The Election of 1860In the presidential election of 1860(A) Abraham Lincoln won a majority (50% plus one) of both the electoral and popular votes (B) the House of Representatives needed to choose the winner, as no candidate received a majority of electoral votes (C) Tennessean John Bell carried most of the Southern states (D) Lincoln's name did not even appear on a number of Southern state ballots (E) the Democratic Party's Northern and Southern leadership supported the candidacy of Stephen DouglasLincoln's 1861 Inauguration in front of anunfinished Capitol BuildingAnswer: (D) Lincoln's name did not even appear on a number of Southern state ballots Explanation: The crucial 1860 presidential election featured four nominees: Republican Abraham Lincoln, Southern Democrat John Breckenridge, Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, and the Constitutional Union Party's John Bell. Though Lincoln, whose name did not appear on ten Southern state ballots, only won 40% of the popular vote, his sweep of Northern states would have awarded him the presidency even if all of his opponents' electoral votes were combined.
511860 Presidential Election √ Abraham Lincoln RepublicanJohn Bell Constitutional UnionDemocrat Party splitsStephen A. Douglas Northern DemocratJohn C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat
54ELECTION OF 1860Country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery.Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States.They will form the Confederate States of America---CSA303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.Election of 1860
591850s: Decade of Controversy Place these significant 1850s events in the correct chronological order:I. John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry II. Lincoln elected president III. Passage of Kansas-Nebraska Act IV. Lincoln-Douglas Debates V. Dred Scott decision(A) I-III-IV-V-II (B) III-IV-V-I-II (C) III-V-IV-I-II (D) IV-III-V-I-II (E) V-III-IV-II-IThe 1854 caning of Senator Sumner illustrated 1850s tensions over slaveryCIII-Kansas-Nebraska Act V-Dred Scott decision IV-Lincoln-Douglas debates I-John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry II-Lincoln elected president-1860