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Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR"— Presentation transcript:

Notes 3 THE ROAD TO THE CIVIL WAR Conflicts over slavery and Compromises Slavery in Louisiana Purchase? Manifest Destiny to 1850 President James K. Polk—1845 to 1849 Oregon Territory Texas Statehood--1845 Mexican War to 1848 US acquired the Mexican Cession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo—1848 Slavery in the Mexican Cession? Compromise of 1850 Calif. Admitted as a free state Create 2 new territories = Popular Sovereignty South: Enforce the Fugitive Slave Law North: stop the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

2 Kansas-Nebraska Act----1854
Gadsden Purchase Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas---build railroad in the North Organize Kansas and Nebraska Territory and open it up to Popular Sovereignty Effects Abolitionists against it Ruined the Missouri Compromise led to violence----Bleeding Kansas Republican Party political party organized to stop the expansion of slavery notes 4

3 Dared Scott—1857-----slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision
notes 5 Judicial Arguments Dared Scott— slave sued for his freedom Supreme Court Decision Constitution did not apply to slaves Legalized slavery in the U.S. All compromises were unconstitutional John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry Reactions North---martyr for the abolitionist cause South---no other choice but secede

4 South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860.
Election of 1860 Lincoln wins election South Carolina secedes from the U.S., Dec of 1860. 10 other Southern States would secede in 1861 formed the CSA---Confederate States of America Why? notes 6

5 Missouri Comp

6 Map expansion

7 David Wilmot Congressman Pennsylvania 1846 Wilmot Proviso Status of slavery already settled with Missouri Compromise? Wilmot proposed a resolution to prohibit slavery in all territory acquired from Mexico Passed the House but failed in the Senate Impacts Reawakening of slavery controversy Sectional fragmentation of Democratic & Whig parties Free Soil Party Popular Sovereignty

8 Compromise of 1850

9 STEPHEN DOUGLAS U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois
Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereignty let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not. Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed the Compromise of 1850 Calif. A free state enforce Fugitive Slave Law Popular Sovereignty stop slave trade in Washington, D.C. (not slavery) Picture/S.Douglas

10 Most intense debate in U.S. History
“Great Triumvirate” Most intense debate in U.S. History John C. Calhoun North should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law South wanted California threatened to secede from U.S. U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the South Daniel Webster Secession is impractical & impossible How would we split the land? The military? Compromise at all cost Preserve the Union Henry Clay The Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise. Comp of 1850

11 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state. Map Comp of 1850

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law Underground Railroad becomes more active

13 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896)
So this is the lady who started the Civil War. - Abraham Lincoln

14 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.
2 million in a decade!

15 Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852

FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW Fugitive Slave Law RESPONSE BY ABOLITIONISTS “An immoral law makes it a man’s duty to break it, at every hazard. For virtue is the very self of every man. It is therefore a principle of law that an immoral contract is void, and that an immoral statute is void. The Fugitive Slave Law is a statute which enacts the crime of kidnapping, a crime on one footing with arson and murder. A man’s right to liberty is as inalienable as his right to life……” Ralph Waldo Emerson “3 millions of the American people are crushed under the American Union! The government gives them no protection– the government is their enemy, the government keeps them in chains! The Union which grinds them to the dust rests upon us, and with them we will struggle to overthrow it! The Constitution which subjects them to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to support. Our motto is, ‘No Union with Slaveholders’….We separate from them, to clear our skirts of innocent blood….and to hasten the downfall of slavery in America, and throughout the world!” William Lloyd Garrison

17 Southerners threatened secession and war
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW SOUTHERNERS RESPOND Southerners threatened secession and war Believed it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law. 5th Amendment Supremacy Clause

18 1852 Presidential Election
√ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil

19 1852 Election Results


Build a transcontinental connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North Stephen Douglas wanted the railroad built in the North but had to convince the South otherwise. Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery in return for building the railroad in the North. Popular Sovereignty Kan. & Neb Act

22 Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)
“Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)

23 Map Bleeding Kan BLEEDING KANSAS Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers. First violent outbreaks between north/south. First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. Over 200 killed (Led by John Brown) Attacks by free-states Attacks by pro-slavery states

24 BLEEDING KANSAS After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and massacres. The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party. The first shots of the Civil War were in Bleeding Kansas. Bleeding Kan

25 “The Crime Against Kansas”
was sent canes with the words- “hit him again” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC)

26 Birth of the Republican Party, 1854
Northern Whigs. Northern Democrats. Free-Soilers. Know-Nothings. Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act

27 The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] Nativists Anti-Catholics
Anti-immigrants 1849  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC. “I Know Nothing” o

28 REPUBLICAN PARTY Free Soil Party against the expansion of slavery
Formed to stop the expansion of slavery REPUBLICAN PARTY Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery Abolitionists National Republican which become the Whigs. Know Nothing Party against immigration Chart/Rep. Party

29 The Republican Party was born in
1850s Republican Party The Republican Party (A) nominated Abraham Lincoln as its first presidential candidate in 1856 (B) took a strong stand against protective tariffs in the 1850s (C) was formed in response to the Compromise of 1850 (D) had both strong northern and southern wings in its first decade of existence (E) was comprised largely of former members of the Whig Party in the 1850s The Republican Party was born in Ripon, Wisconsin in 1854 Answer: (E) was comprised largely of former members of the Whig Party in the 1850s  Explanation:  Formed in 1854 and comprised of a number of ex-Whigs, the Republican Party's first major position was in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act which opened western territories to popular sovereignty and voided the Missouri Compromise's restriction on slavery. It was almost exclusively a northern party in the 1850s, nominating John C. Frémont for president in 1856 and electing Abraham Lincoln in Republican economic policies included support for strong protective tariffs.

30 1856 Presidential Election
√ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig

31 1856 Election Results

32 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state. Map Kan/Neb Act

33 Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857

34 Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue
DRED SCOTT DECISION Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue *Can a slave sue for his freedom? *Is a slave property? *Is slavery legal? *Did residence in a free state make Scott free? *Did Congress posses the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?

35 Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision 6-3
Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law Free states pass personal liberty laws. Republicans claim the decision is not binding Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union. Chart/Effect of Scott

36 Reading/Scott decision
DRED SCOTT DECISION Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted. “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.” Reading/Scott decision

37 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859

38 Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas
JOHN BROWN Violent abolitionist Involved in the Bleeding Kansas Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas Wanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South. Picture/J.Brown

39 JOHN BROWN Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt. Picture/J.Brown

40 Put on trial for treason.
JOHN BROWN Unsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. Lee Put on trial for treason. Picture/J.Brown

41 Picture/J.Brown Hanging
JOHN BROWN He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. His last words were to this effect: “I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.” Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause. Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery. South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country. Southern Nationalism Picture/J.Brown Hanging

42 John Brown: Martyr or Madman?

43 Reading/Tubman on Brown

44 Reading/Lincoln on Brown

45 John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr?
Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry (20c)

46 Illinois Senate Debates, 1858
The Lincoln-Douglas Illinois Senate Debates, 1858 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.

47 Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois 1858.
LINCOLN--DOUGLAS DEBATES Lincoln and Douglas both running for the U.S. Senate in Illinois 1858. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860. Slavery was the issue Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. was against the expansion of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people. Popular sovereignty Chart/L&D Debates

Lincoln got Douglas to admit that Popular Sovereignty could work against the expansion of slavery….. Southerners would not support Douglas for the presidency in 1860 Picture/ L&D Debates

49 Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Which of the following is true of the Lincoln-Douglas Debates? (A) they resulted in Abraham Lincoln being selected as senator from Illinois (B) in them, Douglas developed the Freeport Doctrine as a talking point to support popular sovereignty (C) both Lincoln and Douglas consistently supported the decisions of the Supreme Court regarding slavery (D) during the debates Lincoln assured voters that slavery would never become legal in Illinois (E) they severely damaged Lincoln's attempt to build a national reputation Answer: (B) in them, Douglas developed the Freeport Doctrine as a talking point to support popular sovereignty   Explanation: Douglas expressed the concept of the Freeport Doctrine in the second debate. Essentially he argued that voters could restrict slavery from a new territory by voting against it during statehood constitutional conventions. "I answer emphatically, as Mr. Lincoln has heard me answer a hundred times from every stump in Illinois, that in my opinion the people of a Territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limits prior to the formation of a State constitution. " While losing the senate seat to Douglas, Lincoln built a national reputation as the debates become publicized and reprinted. Lincoln strongly opposed the Dred Scott decision and warned that the direction the U.S. was headed with both the Kansas-Nebraska Act and Dred Scott might even make Illinois a slave state in the future.

50 In the presidential election of 1860
The Election of 1860 In the presidential election of 1860 (A) Abraham Lincoln won a majority (50% plus one) of both the electoral and popular votes (B) the House of Representatives needed to choose the winner, as no candidate received a majority of electoral votes (C) Tennessean John Bell carried most of the Southern states (D) Lincoln's name did not even appear on a number of Southern state ballots (E) the Democratic Party's Northern and Southern leadership supported the candidacy of Stephen Douglas Lincoln's 1861 Inauguration in front of an unfinished Capitol Building Answer: (D) Lincoln's name did not even appear on a number of Southern state ballots   Explanation: The crucial 1860 presidential election featured four nominees: Republican Abraham Lincoln, Southern Democrat John Breckenridge, Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, and the Constitutional Union Party's John Bell. Though Lincoln, whose name did not appear on ten Southern state ballots, only won 40% of the popular vote, his sweep of Northern states would have awarded him the presidency even if all of his opponents' electoral votes were combined.

51 1860 Presidential Election
√ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Democrat Party splits Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

52 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”

53 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!

54 ELECTION OF 1860 Country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery. Once Lincoln is elected as president, South Carolina will secede from the U.S. along with several other Southern States. They will form the Confederate States of America---CSA 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win. Election of 1860

55 Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860


57 Secession

58 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861

59 1850s: Decade of Controversy
Place these significant 1850s events in the correct chronological order: I. John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry II. Lincoln elected president III. Passage of Kansas-Nebraska Act IV. Lincoln-Douglas Debates V. Dred Scott decision (A) I-III-IV-V-II (B) III-IV-V-I-II (C) III-V-IV-I-II (D) IV-III-V-I-II (E) V-III-IV-II-I The 1854 caning of Senator Sumner illustrated 1850s tensions over slavery C III-Kansas-Nebraska Act V-Dred Scott decision IV-Lincoln-Douglas debates I-John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry II-Lincoln elected president-1860


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