6The State living in a defined space, a body of people,living in a defined space,with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority,and with anorganization to do this.
7The StateYou can tell from the definition that there are four key features of a state…What are they?
8Territory Population Sovereignty Government living in a defined space, a body of people,SovereigntyGovernmentwith the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority,and with an organization to do this.
9PopulationThat’s us!Definition: People who are the members or citizens of a stateThe size of the population doesn’t matterPopulation has a big influence on the type of government chosen by the state:Is the population rural or urban?What do people do for jobs?Do people get along or disagree on basic issues?
10Territory Definition: the area in which a state’s rule applies A state must have set boundaries, but they are not always agreed on.Boundaries can change in three ways:war – people win or lose territorynegotiation – people agree to trade territorypurchase – states can buy territory from other states
11Where did the word “SOVEREIGNTY” come from? WAIT!Where did the word “SOVEREIGNTY” come from?
12Sovereignty Don’t worry guys! Remember the definition of “state”? It says, “…with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority…”?Don’t worry guys!“Sovereignty” is just a big word that means a state has the ability to rule within its border as it chooses…
14SovereigntyDefinition: the ability to rule absolutely within a given territoryBecause of sovereignty…states can set their own foreign policy and agendas.states are all equal in theory, but in reality that isn’t always the case.
15Public policy is the laws and rules that affect the public! That’s us!GovernmentDefinition: the organization that makes and enforces the lawsGovernment has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public…Public policy is the laws and rules that affect the public!
16Government Keeping Order Protecting the Country Providing Services That’s us!GovernmentKeeping OrderProtecting the CountryProviding ServicesMaking Economic Decisions
17So by that definition of state… …the United States is just one big state!
18Is the United States just one big state? Figure It Out!Is the United States just one big state?Does it have a population?YESNODoes it have a territory?YESNODoes it have sovereignty?YESNODoes it have government?YESNO
19What about “states” like Connecticut or Georgia? Are they states? Figure It Out!What about “states” like Connecticut or Georgia? Are they states?Do they have a population?YESNODo they have a territory?YESNODo they have sovereignty?YESNODo they have government?YESNO
20They can’t make laws that go against the U.S. Constitution… They have a higher authority above them!
21Oops! I forgot. What four things does the government do? Figure It Out!Oops! I forgot. What four things does the government do?Keeps _________ORDERProtects the __________COUNTRYProvides ___________SERVICESMakes___________ decisionsECONOMIC
22State vs. NationState: political unit with a permanent population, territorial boundaries that are recognized by other states, an effective government, a working economy and sovereignty.Nation: a group of people who share a common culture and identify as a cohesive groupPeople are often willing to fight on behalf of their nationality
23More on States and Nations Over 200 states in the world todayIs the United States a nation or a state?If the U.S. is a nation, what makes it a nation?Nation-State: a state with only one nation within its bordersExample: Iceland and JapanStateless-nation: when a nation does not have a territory to call its ownExample: Assyrian Christians of Iraq or Ughirs of western ChinaMultinational states: a state that includes more than one nation within its bordersExample: United States or Russia
24BoundariesImportant because boundaries are often at the root of many conflicts of varying scalesOur lives are shaped by boundariesNeighbors or your yardCity to cityState to stateThere are many types of political boundariesGeometric, physical, cultural, antecedent, subsequent, superimposed and relict
25Geometric Political Boundaries Defined: straight-line boundaries that do not relate to the cultural or physical features of the territories involvedExample: North and South Korea, the United States and Canada
26Physical Political Boundaries Defined: territory separated according to natural features in the landscape like mountains, deserts or riversExample: France and Spain, United States and Mexico
27Cultural BoundariesDefined: changes in the cultural landscape-can include things like language or religionCan be more than one type of boundary at the same timeExamples: Pakistan and India, Spain and Portugal
28Antecedent Boundaries Existed before human cultures developed into their current forms-defined and evolved before present human day landscapeUsually the least likely to experience violence or conflictExamples: Kentucky and Indiana separated by the Ohio River
29Subsequent Boundaries Defined: divide space after significant settlement has occurredIt has changed over history with attempt to deal with cultural differencesfairly non-confrontationalExample: United States and Canada
30Superimposed Boundaries Defined: forcibly put on a landscape by outsiders, such as invaders or an organization like the United NationsMost likely to be violent or have conflictExample: the modern state of Israel or police jurisdictions
31Relict BoundaryDefined: no longer functions as a boundary but only as a reminder of what once wasExamples: North and South Vietnam, Berlin Wall in Germany
32EnclaveDefined: state or part of a state, completely surrounded by another stateWhat could be the benefits of this?What could be the costs of this?Examples: Lesotho and South Africa
33Exclave Defined: a territorial political extension of another state Example: West Berlin in East GermanyEnclaves and exclaves can cause conflict over boundariesExample: Azerbaijan has Muslim majority while its neighbor Armenia has a Christian majorityWithin Azerbaijan, there is a minority nation of Christian Armenians
34Thanks for all your help! Great job, kiddos!Thanks for all your help!