Presentation on theme: "Hey! What do you know about this thing called “the state” …?"— Presentation transcript:
Hey! What do you know about this thing called “the state” …?
The state? You mean like Alabama, Texas, Ohio, etc.?
No, no. I mean something bigger than that…
Well, let’s see what this lesson is all about. Maybe it’ll help you out…
with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority, The State a body of people, living in a defined space, and with an organization to do this.
The State You can tell from the definition that there are four key features of a state… What are they?
PopulationTerritorySovereignty Government a body of people, living in a defined space, with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority, and with an organization to do this.
Population That’s us! Definition: People who are the members or citizens of a state The size of the population doesn’t matter Population has a big influence on the type of government chosen by the state: Is the population rural or urban? What do people do for jobs? Do people get along or disagree on basic issues?
Territory A state must have set boundaries, but they are not always agreed on. Boundaries can change in three ways: war – people win or lose territory negotiation – people agree to trade territory purchase – states can buy territory from other states Definition: the area in which a state’s rule applies
WAIT! Where did the word “SOVEREIGNTY” come from? Sovereignty
Sovereignty Don’t worry guys! “Sovereignty” is just a big word that means a state has the ability to rule within its border as it chooses… Remember the definition of “state”? It says, “…with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority…”?
Sovereignty That’s SOVEREIGNTY ! Oh! Ok, cool…
Because of sovereignty… states can set their own foreign policy and agendas. states are all equal in theory, but in reality that isn’t always the case. Definition: the ability to rule absolutely within a given territory Sovereignty
Government That’s us! Definition: the organization that makes and enforces the laws Government has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public… Public policy is the laws and rules that affect the public!
Government That’s us! Keeping Order Protecting the Country Providing Services Making Economic Decisions
So by that definition of state… …the United States is just one big state!
Figure It Out! Is the United States just one big state? Does it have a population? YESNO Does it have a territory? Does it have sovereignty? Does it have government? YES YES YES NO NO NO
Figure It Out! What about “states” like Connecticut or Georgia? Are they states? Do they have a population? YESNO Do they have a territory? Do they have sovereignty? Do they have government? YES YES YES NO NO NO
They can’t make laws that go against the U.S. Constitution… They have a higher authority above them!
Figure It Out! Oops! I forgot. What four things does the government do? Keeps _________ ORDER Protects the __________ Provides ___________ Makes___________ decisions COUNTRY SERVICES ECONOMIC
State vs. Nation State: political unit with a permanent population, territorial boundaries that are recognized by other states, an effective government, a working economy and sovereignty. Nation: a group of people who share a common culture and identify as a cohesive group –People are often willing to fight on behalf of their nationality
More on States and Nations Over 200 states in the world today Is the United States a nation or a state? If the U.S. is a nation, what makes it a nation? Nation-State: a state with only one nation within its borders –Example: Iceland and Japan Stateless-nation: when a nation does not have a territory to call its own –Example: Assyrian Christians of Iraq or Ughirs of western China Multinational states: a state that includes more than one nation within its borders –Example: United States or Russia
Boundaries Important because boundaries are often at the root of many conflicts of varying scales Our lives are shaped by boundaries Neighbors or your yard City to city State to state There are many types of political boundaries Geometric, physical, cultural, antecedent, subsequent, superimposed and relict
Geometric Political Boundaries Defined: straight-line boundaries that do not relate to the cultural or physical features of the territories involved Example: North and South Korea, the United States and Canada
Physical Political Boundaries Defined: territory separated according to natural features in the landscape like mountains, deserts or rivers Example: France and Spain, United States and Mexico
Cultural Boundaries Defined: changes in the cultural landscape-can include things like language or religion Can be more than one type of boundary at the same time Examples: Pakistan and India, Spain and Portugal
Antecedent Boundaries Existed before human cultures developed into their current forms-defined and evolved before present human day landscape Usually the least likely to experience violence or conflict Examples: Kentucky and Indiana separated by the Ohio River
Subsequent Boundaries Defined: divide space after significant settlement has occurred It has changed over history with attempt to deal with cultural differences fairly non-confrontational Example: United States and Canada
Superimposed Boundaries Defined: forcibly put on a landscape by outsiders, such as invaders or an organization like the United Nations Most likely to be violent or have conflict Example: the modern state of Israel or police jurisdictions
Relict Boundary Defined: no longer functions as a boundary but only as a reminder of what once was Examples: North and South Vietnam, Berlin Wall in Germany
Enclave Defined: state or part of a state, completely surrounded by another state What could be the benefits of this? What could be the costs of this? Examples: Lesotho and South Africa
Exclave Defined: a territorial political extension of another state Example: West Berlin in East Germany Enclaves and exclaves can cause conflict over boundaries Example: Azerbaijan has Muslim majority while its neighbor Armenia has a Christian majority Within Azerbaijan, there is a minority nation of Christian Armenians