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April 27, Forms of Transhuman Persons and The Importance of Prior Resolution of Relevant Law A Comparison with the Law of Outer.

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Presentation on theme: "April 27, Forms of Transhuman Persons and The Importance of Prior Resolution of Relevant Law A Comparison with the Law of Outer."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 27, Forms of Transhuman Persons and The Importance of Prior Resolution of Relevant Law A Comparison with the Law of Outer Space Martine Rothblatt,

2 April 27, Definitions of Transhuman Dictionaries –Websters: “superhuman” –Wikipedia (& WTA): “intermediate form between human and post-human.” Extropy Institute –“human seeking to become posthuman” Terasem Movement –Transbiologically Receptive And Noetically Synthetic Human –“Noetically Synthetic” means intrinsic and/or extrinsic use of electronics for thought –“Human” depends on thoughts, not DNA

3 April 27, Form v. Attitude In Definition of Transhuman More About Attitude More About Form Extropy Institute’s “Seeking” Terasem’s “Receptivity/Noetics” Webster’s “Superhuman” Wikipedia/WTA’s “Intermediate to Posthuman”

4 April 27, Challenging the Definitions Brain-enhanced nonhuman animals? What of chimeras? How about sideways evolution? What of AI not at all patterned on human thoughts Terasem definition works for all but last

5 April 27, Definition of Persons A human or organization with legal rights and duties Are transhumanized US citizens still citizens? –If no renunciation or death, still a citizen –Are revived persons reborn & new citizens? Can non-citizens be organized as trusts or other business forms? Title 22 U.S.C. Section ''United States person'' defined As used in this chapter, the term ''United States person'' means any United States citizen or alien admitted for permanent residence in the United States, and any corporation, partnership, or other organization organized under the laws of the United States.

6 April 27, 1958: First Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space Sputnik 1957 Explorer 1958 Little Rock 1958 Nixon-Kruschev 1959

7 April 27, Experts Met to Start the Field of Space Law When… No animal had even been to orbit Communication satellites were thought to require on-board human operators The first damage caused by a space object was 20 years into the future Radioactive Cosmos 954 Crashed in Canada In 1978

8 April 27, When Legal Efforts Began Space: 1958 Transhuman: 2005 Outer Space Technology Transhuman Technology Practicality & UtilityScientific & MilitaryScientific, Medical & Military Motivation for LawAvoid Conflict Among States Avoid Conflict Among Beings Hardest IssueBoundaries in SpaceBoundaries in Citizenship Action PlanTranscend Air Law Concepts Transcend Law of Persons Concepts?

9 April 27, Kurzweil Slide Shows Close-In of Transhuman Technology

10 April 27, Kurzweil Slide Showing Transhumanization of Society

11 April 27, What Did the Experts Conclude in 1958? The age-old concept of national sovereignty over airspace had to give way to the technological reality of orbital overflight Someone had to be legally responsible for every object placed into space -- registration, coordination & strict liability for damages

12 April 27, How Did They Fare? Outer Space Treaty banned sovereignty over space Liability Convention specified rules for compensation due to space damage Registration Convention gave legal status to space objects th Colloquia Andrew Haley, Colloquia On Law of Outer Space Founder Stephen Gorove, Greatest Contributor To Colloquia On Law Of Outer Space

13 April 27, What Might We Conclude Analogous to Our Legal Forebearers? Age-old concepts of citizenship & death may have to give way to new techno- logical realities Responsibility for transhuman persons will need to be regularized

14 April 27, Possible Analytic Framework for Transhuman Person Law Information Theory Death Community Standards Equal Protection v. ADA Mind Information Organized? No Dead Entity, Existing Law OK Y Entity Conscious? No Biostasis Entity, Retains Citizenship; New Agency Law Y Able to Comply With Citizenship Obligations? No New Law of Transhuman Custodialship Y

15 April 27, Then Should Be Ready to Grant Transhuman Citizenship It is a big leap from genome/phenotype based citizenship But it was just as big a leap to forswear sovereignty after centuries of “core- to-cosmos” conical sovereignty

16 April 27, We Must Evolve Law with Evolving Technology… Just as Copernicus’ theory of the Earth’s rotation numbered the days of old-school sovereignty, so does Turing’s theory of machine consciousness number the days of old- school citizenship

17 April 27, …Or Else We Will Face the Conflicts of Dysfunctional Law * Conflict Between –Humans & Transhumans –Flesh & Electronic Substrate Can Be Avoided With Prior Legal Development

18 April 27, How Might We Do in 10, 20 or 50 Years? Time It May Take Social Implications Shift to Information Theory Basis of Life & Death Recognize Citizenship Of DNA Humans Who Download Minds to Electronic Substrate Due To Brain Disease AI Citizenship


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