Presentation on theme: "Political Geography. Political Culture Political cultures vary Political ideas vs. religion or language Theocracies Territoriality Key element."— Presentation transcript:
Political Culture Political cultures vary Political ideas vs. religion or language Theocracies Territoriality Key element of political culture
State and Nation Terminology “State” vs. “country” A nation may be larger than a state Nation has historic, ethnic and often linguistic and religious connotations Stateless nations
Rise of the Modern State The European model The Norman invasion & out of “Dark Age” Thirty Years’ War treaties The Renaissance Mercantilism & religious wars Money vs. land
The Nation-State Some democratic, some autocratic, and some parliamentary democracies Sovereignty remained with the nation—the people European control Creation of “nation states” Are there real nation states? Internal cultural diversity Heterogeneous states can share “national spirit” Emotional commitment to the state and for what it stands e.g., Confederation Helvetica
Spatial Characteristics of States Physical and cultural properties Size and population Needs legitimacy Boundaries: centripetal or centrifugal forces Four main features of the European model: 1. Clearly defined territory 2. Substantial population 3. Certain types of organizational structures 4. Some power
Territory Territorial morphology Size, shape, and relative location Present opportunities and challenges Size Large vs. small states Shape Compact Fragmented Elongated Protruded Perforated
Compact States Efficient, distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Prorupted An otherwise compact state with a large, projecting extension -can provide a state with access to water. -can separate two states.
Perforated A state that surrounds another one. South Africa
Fragmented Includes several discontinuous pieces. 2 types of separation: 1. separates another state (Armenia) 2. separated by water
Elongated Has a long narrow shape: -may suffer from poor internal communications
Paraguay Itaipu Dam
Lesotho: an enclave Kaliningrad: an exclave
Land Boundaries International boundaries Have a vertical plane cutting through the rocks below, and the airspace above
Land Boundaries How do we get boundaries? Three steps of boundary evolution Define it Exact location established, via treaty-like legal documents, describing (absolute or relative) actual points Delimit it Officially put on a map, by a cartographer Demarcate it Actual ground markers—fences, pillars, walls, etc.—if desired Not all boundaries are demarcated
4 Corners: What type of boundary?
Land Boundaries Types of boundaries Geometric boundary Straight-line boundaries Totally unrelated to any aspects of physical or cultural landscapes Physical-political boundary or natural-political boundary Outlined by a physiographic landscape features (river, mountain ridge, etc.) Convenient, but nature & meaning might change over time Cultural-political boundary Formerly “anthropogenic” boundaries Mark breaks in the human landscape
Land Boundaries Origin-based classification Richard Hartshorne’s Genetic Boundary Classification Antecedent boundary Existed before the cultural landscape emerged Subsequent boundary Developed at the same time as the major elements of the cultural landscape Superimposed boundary Placed by powerful outsiders on a developed cultural landscape Relic boundary Ceased to function, but its imprint is still on the cultural landscape Frontiers A frontier is a zone of separation
Subsequent and Superimposed
Superimposed and subsequent
A different boundary: The Equator near Quito, Ecuador between the north and south hemisphere
Functions of Boundaries “Walls” Limit state jurisdiction State symbols
Functions of Boundaries Internal boundaries For administrative purposes Examples: United States or Canada Some culturally divided countries have internal boundaries that do not show on a map
Functions of Boundaries Boundary disputes Four principal forms of boundary disputes Definitional Focus on the “legalese” of the agreement Locational Focus on the delimitation and/or demarcation of the border Operational Focus on neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should function Allocational Focus on resources that straddle neighbors
Resources De Blij, Harm, J. (2007). Human Geography People, Place and Culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price, Patricia, & Jordan-Bychkov, The Human Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Fellman, Jerome, D., Getis, Arthur, & Getis, Judith, Human Geography, Landscapes of Human Activities. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and Pulsipher, World Regional Geography, Global Patterns, Local Lives. W.H. Freeman and Company New York. Rubenstein, James M. (2008). An introduction to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Benewick, Robert, & Donald, Stephanie H. (2005). The State of China Atlas. Berkeley: University of California Press.