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Background Each of the former colonies became independent nations Each was free to do as they pleased Very jealously guarded the newly achieved freedom.

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Presentation on theme: "Background Each of the former colonies became independent nations Each was free to do as they pleased Very jealously guarded the newly achieved freedom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Background Each of the former colonies became independent nations Each was free to do as they pleased Very jealously guarded the newly achieved freedom

2 Background Each responsible for defense Each is militarily weak How can we provide for defense without losing sovereignty?

3 Collaboration Negotiate – Method for common defense – Preserve newly achieved freedom

4 Outcome Agree to give up some (VERY LITTLE) power to the central government Largely retain sovereignty

5 This Document? Articles of Confederation

6 Articles of Confederation Second Continental Congress – July 12, 1776 Adopted: November 15, States support within a year (No Maryland and Delaware) Effective: March 1, 1781 (Maryland) John Dickinson

7 Basics Pre-amble 13 articles “League of friendship and perpetual union” Would: – Respect public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of other states – Surrender fugitives – Treat other states citizens equally

8 State vs. National Sovereignty "Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence, and every Power, Jurisdiction and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.“ Dominant Branch?

9 Congress? Unicameral or Bicameral?

10 Representation? "No state shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor by more than seven Members” Members of Congress were chosen and paid by state legislatures "In determining questions in the united states....each state shall have one vote."

11 Passing Acts "a majority of the united states in congress assembled” "nine states assent to the same“ Need supermajority (9/13)

12 Amendments "agreed to in a congress of the united states, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every state.“ How many were there???

13 Executive? "The united states in congress assembled shall have authority to appoint...one of their number to...serve in the office of president" First Executive? – Samuel Huntington (President of Continental Congress) and Thomas McKean (replaced Huntington when Huntington resigns due to illness) – John Hanson (Maryland) (Elected) (Considered First) No executive branch

14 Judiciary Very Limited Power States submit problems to Congress

15 National Governmental Powers Limited powers One branch of government – a legislature which carried out both legislative and executive functions To have embassies and receive ambassadors To make and wage war Appoint ambassadors To enter into treaties Establish maritime courts Authority to settle border disputes between states Regulate trade with Indian tribes Set up post offices and charge postage Appoint officers to the army and navy

16 National Power Breakdown… National government could…. – Declare war – Make treaties – Coin money (states too) States retained sovereignty here Resolve the problems with Indians Establish and maintain a post office

17 State Governmental Powers All powers not delegated to the national government Taxation Each state had its own judicial system Power to collect taxes Power to enforce laws passed by Congress

18 WEAKNESSES??? Weaknesses: One vote for each State 2-7 Representatives and one vote National Government can’t impose taxes on citizens (must ask states) Congress can’t regulate foreign or interstate commerce No executive to enforce acts of congress No national court system Amendments require all 13 states approval (0 ever passed) 9/13 (supermajority) to pass laws Unicameral legislature State and National Government could coin (create) money

19 Other Issues Who would control Western territories? – States or national government Who would profit or expand off of this How taxation is determined

20 The time for change has come… In February, 1787, Congress put out a call for the states to send delegates to a convention in Philadelphia. The sole official purpose of the convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation

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22 Shays’ Rebellion Economic turmoil (inflation and debt) Property owners lose land (small farmers) August 29, 1786 Daniel Shays – Officer in War Leads uprising – Attempt to prevent rulings on debt and land loss until new legislature in place – Break into jails to free debtors – Burns barns of wealthy – Some wealthy contribute money out of fear

23 Shay’s asks militia outside courthouse to: – Refrain from indicting any man who had been part of the previous court closings – That no more courts convene until the people's grievances had been considered and redressed – the government dismiss the government militia guarding the courthouse. General Shepard refused to consent to any of these demands Agrees that Shays’ men can peaceably protest In return, Captain Shays promised that his men would not molest either the militia guarding the courthouse or the justices inside.

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25 Attack on the Federal Arsenal Attack on Federal Arsenal in Springfield, Massachusetts (failed) Most violent of conflicts between Massachusetts government and protestors Shays’ flees – Convicted but later pardoned

26 Annapolis Philadelphia Convention (Revise Articles)


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