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Selecting, refining and Defining Research Problems

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1 Selecting, refining and Defining Research Problems
Dr. Nazik Zakari Dr. Hanan A. Ezzat Dr. Olfat Salem Nursing Administration & Education Dept. SUMBER:‎

2 Definitions Research Topic: The broad general area expected to investigate. It is a broad idea or concept from which many problems may be delineated. Research Problem: Situasi atau keadaan yang membutuhkan solusi yang harus dideskripsikan, dijelaskan, atau diprediksi. Ini merupakan situasi yang tidak “memuaskan” yang ingin dijawab. SUMBER:‎

3 Definitions Jika ada kesenjangan pengetahuan di daerah yang perlu diselidiki, masalah penelitian mengidentifikasi kesenjangan ini. Dimana sebagai topik penelitian hanyalah sebuah wilayah yang luas dari MINAT, masalah penelitian mengidentifikasi apa yang bermasalah tentang topik itu. Research Statement: A statement specifies exactly what is being studied. SUMBER:‎

4 Definitions Rumusan masalah penelitian (research statement) harus mencakup enam unsur: Information about the research topic that provoked the study The scope of the problem (e.g.. how many people are affected by it). Why it is important to study the problem SUMBER:‎

5 Definitions Rumusan masalah penelitian (research statement) harus mencakup enam unsur: How nursing science would be influenced by the study General characteristics of the population of interest The overall goal or aim of the study or the question to be answered. SUMBER:‎

6 Contoh Rumusan Masalah penelitian
Kebisingan yang berbahaya merupakan masalah kesehatan kerja penting karena dapat menyebabkan gangguan pendengaran dan dapat menyebabkan peningkatan stres dan efek fisiologis lain yang merugikan Lebih dari 30 juta pekerja yang terkena kebisingan berbahaya ini pada pekerjaan Penggunaan alat perlindungan pendengaran, khususnya telinga-busi dikenal untuk mengurangi paparan kebisingan dan mencegah ketulian yang disebabkan gangguan pendengaran ada, namun relatif sedikit peneliti yang telah meneliti faktor yang berhubungan dengan rendahnya penggunaan alat pelindung pendengaran oleh pekerja. SUMBER:‎

7 Contoh rumusan Tujuan Penelitian:
Research Purpose It is the specific aim or goal hope to be accomplished. It reflects “ why the problem is being studied” Contoh rumusan Tujuan Penelitian: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji hubungan antara kepuasan kerja perawat dan kecenderungan untuk pindah kerja. SUMBER:‎

8 Research Question It is a direct rewording of the statement of the purpose phrased interrogatively rather than declaratively Questions that are simple and direct invite an answer and help to focus attention on the kinds of data needed to provide that answer. SUMBER:‎

9 Example of a research question:
What is the relationship between the nurses’ job satisfaction and their tendency to leave the work setting? SUMBER:‎

10 Sources of research problems
Where do ideas for research problems come from? Social issues Ideas from external sources Research priorities Clinical experience Nursing literature SUMBER:‎

11 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 1: Selection of the research topic: write down general areas of interest At this stage, it doesn’t matter if the terms used are broad or specific, abstract or concrete., The important point is to put ideas on papers. SUMBER:‎

12 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 1: Selection of the research topic: Then a list of ideas can be classified into Interesting topics. Familiar topics. Perplexing topics Feasible/not feasible topics And then, choose the most suitable one to work in SUMBER:‎

13 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 2: Contemplating the ideas : then explore the phenomena by examining the following eight areas The topic’s, situation’s problem’s precipitating factors. How it is exactly viewed or perceived by the researcher. What are the responses of others who are involved in the situation? The personal involvement in the situation. SUMBER:‎

14 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 2: Contemplating the ideas : Emotions felt. Values and biases inherent in or related to the topic/situation. Risk factors associated with searching this topic/situation/problem. What contribution the research would offer. SUMBER:‎

15 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 3: Narrowing the topic Once a research topic has been specified and contemplate, the researcher must then narrow it down in order to develop a research problem. This is done through generating questions from the research topic. List of questions can be developed from the research topic, and then investigated in relation to its feasibility to research. SUMBER:‎

16 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Reviewing the related literature at this stage may throw light on: Theoretical framework. Methodology. Data collection methods. Data collection tools SUMBER:‎

17 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Data collection techniques. Sampling method…etc. Review of literature will also help to identify what is known and what is not known about the research problem. Therefore, the research problem could be specified and stated at this point. SUMBER:‎

18 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 5: Writing the statement of the research problem : Expressed in a statement This statement serves as a guide to the researcher in the course of designing the study. SUMBER:‎

19 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Step 5: Writing the statement : The problem statement should have the following characteristics: Identify the key variables in the study. Express a relationship between two or more variables. (If not descriptive). Specify the study population. Imply the type of the research. Identify the study setting. SUMBER:‎

20 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
The problem statement could be done in two forms: Declarative: “The relationship between the nurses’ job satisfaction and tendency to leave work” Interrogative: “ Is there a relationship between the nurses’ job satisfaction and tendency to leave work?” SUMBER:‎

21 Evaluation of the research problem
Time: enough time will be available for the various steps of the research. Timing :When the timing requirement of a task do not match Money : the researcher should ask the following questions: Will I have enough money to complete this research? Will be any sources for funding the research? Does the anticipated cost outweigh the value of the expected findings? SUMBER:‎

22 Perumusan Masalah penelitian
Availability of research participants: Ethical consideration Facilities and equipment Co operation of the others Researchability Qualifications and experience of the researcher Significance of the problem SUMBER:‎

23 HIPOTESIS It is the research’s prediction of the outcome of the research study. That is the expected relationship between the study variables. Thus, RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS translates the research purpose into a clear prediction of the expected results or outcome of the study SUMBER:‎

24 HIPOTESIS Importance of R.H.:
It provides direction for the type of research (i.e. design, sampling, data collection .. etc.). Suggests the type of statistical analysis to be used in the study. Identifies the variables to be manipulated and/or measured SUMBER:‎

25 HIPOTESIS How to state a R.H.:
Research hypothesis should be stated clearly, concisely, measurably, and in the present tense. For a hypothesis to be stated clearly, concisely, and measurably, three criteria should be considered: SUMBER:‎

26 HIPOTESIS Three criteria should be considered:
A relationship should be addressed in each hypothesis. The variable/condition/relationship must be testable or measurable. The aim of the research guides what is included in the research hypothesis. SUMBER:‎

27 HIPOTESIS When the research aim is to describe, the R.H. will include the target population and study variables. When the research aim is to explore, the R.H. makes prediction about population and the relationship among study variables. When the research aim is to predict, the R.H. concentrates on the population and independent variables. SUMBER:‎

28 HIPOTESIS Types of hypothesis Simple
It predicts the relationship o\between one independent variable and one dependent variable. Example: Newborns of smoking mothers (I.V) have lower birth weight (D.V.) than those of non-smoking mothers. Lower levels of exercise postpartum (I.V) will be associated with greater weight retention (D.V ) SUMBER:‎

29 HIPOTESIS Types of hypothesis
Complex It predicts the relationship between 2 or more I.V. and 2 or more D.V. Example: Structured preoperative support (IV).is more effective in reducing surgical patient’s perception of pain (D.V) and request of analgesics (D.V) than structured post operative support (i.v.) SUMBER:‎

30 HIPOTESIS Associative
It predicts an association between the I.V. and the D.V. without specifying either a directional or causal relation. Example: Maternal age (I.V.) is associated with pregnancy complications (D.V) SUMBER:‎

31 HIPOTESIS Causal It predicts a cause-and effect relationship between the I.V. and D.V. Example: Older mothers (I.V.) give birth to newborns with lover age (D.V.) than those of younger mother (I.V) SUMBER:‎

32 HIPOTESIS Hipotesis Null
It predicts no relationship between I.V. and D.V. It is used when statistical testing procedures are applied to the data. Example: There is no relationship between maternal smoking and newborn’s birth weight. SUMBER:‎

33 HIPOTESIS Alternative
It is the opposite of the null hypothesis. So, it predicts a relationship between the I.V. and D.V. Example: All the previous examples are alternative hypotheses. SUMBER:‎

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