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Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and the Environment Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations and Non-governmental Organizations Theme:

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and the Environment Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations and Non-governmental Organizations Theme:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and the Environment Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations and Non-governmental Organizations Theme: The effect of globalization on the power of the nation-state Lesson 23

2 Part 1: Global Problems: Disease and Environment Lesson 23

3 Disease Globalization has facilitated the spread of disease through things like travel and immigration Globalization has also helped stop or slow disease through technology and international cooperation Probable early diffusion of AIDS (Adapted from The Geography of AIDS, Shannon, Pyle, and Bashsur)


5 Disease One phenomenon that works against eliminating some diseases is that they occur in the predominantly poorer Southern Hemisphere where money for both research and medicine is scarce –Leprosy –Malaria –AIDs Global distribution of AIDs

6 Disease The World Health Organization (WHO) –Established in1948 as the United Nations’ specialized agency for health Objective is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health Defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

7 Disease WHO launched an intensified plan to eradicate smallpox in 1967 Small pox was pushed back to the horn of Africa where the last natural case occurred in Somalia in 1977 There was a fatal laboratory-acquired case in the United Kingdom in 1978 A commission of scientists certified the global eradication of smallpox in December 1979 and the World Health Assembly endorsed this announcement in 1980.

8 Disease In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution for the worldwide eradication of polio Since then, polio cases have decreased by over 99% –In 1998, there were more than 350,000 cases in more than 125 endemic countries –In 2005, there were just 1951 reported cases –In 2006, only four countries in the world remained endemic for the disease Eradication of polio is within sight thanks to the global effort to eradicate the disease

9 Environment By 2000, the world’s population had passed 6 billion and had created great strains on the environment –Many, especially in poorer nations, have left the countryside in search of employment and opportunity in the city –Urbanization has created overcrowding, pollution, and sewage problems

10 Environment Many environmental problems are transnational in nature and require massive international cooperation to solve, but national self-interest works against meaningful change –Global warming –Amazon rain forests –Garbage

11 Environment In 1986, the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl in Ukraine, at that time a republic of the USSR, exploded and led to huge releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere Fallout drifted throughout the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, Britain, and as far as the eastern coast of North America

12 Environment The UN World Tourism Organization and the UN Environmental Program are increasingly concerned with the environmental aspects of world tourism –“The Wider Caribbean Region, stretching from Florida to French Guiana, receives 63,000 port calls from ships each year, and they generate 82,000 tons of garbage. About 77% of all ship waste comes from cruise vessels. The average cruise ship carries 600 crew members and 1,400 passengers. On average, passengers on a cruise ship each account for 3.5 kilograms of garbage daily - compared with the 0.8 kilograms each generated by the less well-endowed folk on shore.” UNEP

13 Part 2: Nationalism Lesson 23

14 Thirty Years’ War (We talked about this in Lesson 3) From 1618-1648, Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Swedish, Danish, Polish, Bohemian, and Russian forces fought the Thirty Years’ War over political, economic, and, especially, religious differences –It was the most destructive European conflict before the 20 th Century –One-third of the German population was killed In order to avoid tearing their society apart, European states ended the war with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

15 Peace of Westphalia (1648) Laid the foundation for a system of independent, sovereign states All states agreed to regard each other as sovereign and equal They mutually recognized their rights to organize their own domestic affairs, including religious affairs States would conduct their own political and diplomatic affairs according to their own interests Detail from a painting of the oathtaking of the Peace of Westphalia by Gerard Terborch (1617-1681)

16 Nation-state “A political unit consisting of an autonomous state inhabited predominantly by a people sharing a common culture, history, and language.” Sometimes called “Westphalian states”

17 Tension of Globalization Governments still operate on the basis of the territorially delineated state as proclaimed by the Peace of Westphalia, but, as the world’s nations and people become increasingly interdependent, nations are being pressured to surrender portions of their sovereignty

18 Decline of the Nation State “Erosion from above” –International problems and the grow of international organizations that try to solve them –The global economy “Erosion from below” –Internal ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic tensions –Exacerbated by weak national economies The result is that “national governments spend more and more of their time, energy, and money simply reacting; reacting to problems or crises, to challenges both from above and below, and to agendas set by others.” –Olin Robinson, Vermont Public Radio

19 The Role of the Nation-State “Although the nation-state as an institution will not die out in the foreseeable future, its monopoly of power has been considerably weakened, and its hold on populations has been greatly reduced. The nation-state has become just one of several world organizational structures. Sovereignty - presuming such a thing ever really existed - may well be consigned to the history of the late Industrial Age, a mere picturesque oddity on the pathway of humanity’s journey.” –Gary Dean

20 Part 3: Non-governmental Organizations and International Organizations Lesson 23

21 Why?… “Why should international institutions exist at all in a world dominated by sovereign states?” –Rhetorical question posed by Robert Keohane

22 Because…. “Global problems require global solutions. We fall together or we succeed together.” –Joseph Deiss, Minister of Economic Affairs of Switzerland Air pollution obscures the ground in this aerial photo of China Diseases such as bird flu threaten to become pandemics

23 Tension of Globalization Traditional nation-states have difficulties handling problems of a global magnitude A plethora of nongovernmental international organizations that do not respect territorial boundaries and are beyond the reach of national governments have sprung up to try to tackle the problem –Usually focus on a largely singular agenda

24 Some NGOs and their Agendas Red Cross –Relieve suffering to wounded soldiers and prisoners of war Greenpeace –Preserve the earth’s natural resources and animal and plant life Amnesty International –Ensure human rights

25 Some IGOs and their Agendas An organization of sovereign nations devoted to a agenda of international scope or character United Nations –Maintain international peace and security World Trade Organization –Foster free trade

26 The Reduction of Sovereignty “Under the WTO, member countries cannot tax or limit imports made under unfair or unsafe labor conditions. The same can be said for those imports that significantly harm the global environment during production. National sovereignty is what is at stake, since countries do not retain the ability to choose for themselves.” –David Carstens, “Bringing Environmental and Economic Internationalism into US Strategy” Pro-democracy protests in China in 1989 resulted in the massive government crackdown at Tiananmen Square

27 NGOs and the “New Diplomacy” With the end of the Cold War, the US became the world’s only superpower –“But a funny thing happened on the way to American supremacy. No sooner had the United States won the bipolar superpower game than the rules of international law and politics began to change.” Thousands of NGOs have succeeded in getting their issues to the top of the diplomatic agenda and taken advantage of technology and communications improvements to change the methods by which international decisions are made “The mantle of international leadership is no longer conferred by economic and military power alone; instead, the power of ideas, and how they are communicated and marketed, has come to the fore.” David Davenport, “The New Diplomacy”

28 Case Study: The Ottawa Convention Throughout the 1990s, concern mounted over the use of land mines Land mines left in place after fighting stopped in Cambodia, Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and elsewhere were continuing to claim victims, many of which were children Cambodia land mine victim

29 Case Study: The Ottawa Convention Traditionally such an agenda was handled by international arms control and disarmament experts –The U.N. Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and the U.N. Conference on Disarmament in Geneva were working toward international agreements limiting land mines Some thought the traditional process was going too slowly and a new NGO, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) decided a new approach was needed

30 Case Study: The Ottawa Convention The ICBL acted as the “master NGO” for a group of over 1,000 NGOs from more than 60 countries A small core group of states, led by Canada, provided the necessary element of state leadership –Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy told the delegates in Ottawa the goal was to have a treaty in 15 months Lloyd Axworthy

31 Case Study: The Ottawa Convention Usually international negotiations seek consensus, if not unanimity The ICBL and its cohorts felt this would be destined to accepting the lowest common denominator and they felt too passionately about the subject to settle for that Instead these negotiations required a 2/3 majority vote rather than consensus –Less national participation would be accepted in order to keep the central content of the proposals intact

32 Case Study: The Ottawa Convention The NGOs waged what Axworthy called “the mobilization of shame” using faxes, email, cell phones, and displays to strengthen their message and ridicule opposition The US was left on the sidelines and by the time it recovered the momentum was strongly with the NGOs US reservations to the treaty were never seriously considered and the US, along with China and Russia, had no choice but to not sign the treaty American Jody Williams and the ICBL shared the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to ban anti-personnel land mines

33 Accountability “Yet, the greatest challenges created by the growing influence of NGOs are not in the field but in the arena of public opinion and the corridors of power. Today, in a phenomenon that one environmental activist bemoaned as the ‘rise of the global idiots,’ any group with a fax machine and a modem has the potential to distort public debate…” –P. J. Simmons Pamela Anderson helping PETA make its point

34 Case Study: Kosovo Ethnic Albanians comprised about 14% of Serbia’s population –Most of the Albanians lived in the province of Kosovo Throughout the 1990s, Serbian military and police forces battled the Kosovo Liberation Army By 1998, the Serbs had embarked on a campaign to systematically cleanse Kosovo of its ethnic Albanian population Camp Stenkovich II in Macedonia held approximately 20,000 refugees.

35 Case Study: Kosovo On 24 March 1999, NATO initiated Operation Allied Force in order to –Stop the Serb offensive in Kosovo, –Force a withdrawal of Serb troops from Kosovo, –Allow democratic self- government in Kosovo, –Allow a NATO-led international peacekeeping force into Kosovo, and –Allow the safe and peaceful return of Kosovar Albanian refugees.

36 Case Study: Kosovo On June 9, 1999, Serbia agreed to a Military Technical Agreement that ended the 11-week war On June 12, KFOR entered Kosovo under the authority of UN Security Resolution 1244 On February 12, 2002 former Serbian President Milosevic went on trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. –He died in 2006 before a verdict was reached

37 Case Study: Kosovo From an international law perspective, OAF got mixed reviews –It violated traditional principles of nonintervention and nonaggression –It could set a precedent for using military force for humanitarian reasons –It represented the use of force by a regional organization (NATO) without UN Security Council authorization

38 The Legitimacy of Intervention “Is there some threshold at which human rights violations become unacceptable and a state's sovereignty no longer precludes intervention? Is it the 500th slain ethnic citizen or the next refugee after 10,000 have been forced to leave home that triggers intervention or makes it legitimate?” –Robert Tomes Holocaust victims in a mass grave

39 Role of the UN “The United Nations is the preeminent institution of multinationalism. It provides a forum where sovereign states can come together to share burdens, address common problems, and seize common opportunities. The UN helps establish the norms that many countries– including the United States– would like everyone to live by.” –Shashi Tharoor

40 But whose norms? Austrian Presidency of the Council of the European Union Permanent Council No. 592 9 February 2006 EU Statement on Death Penalty in the USA The EU reiterates its longstanding and firm opposition to the death penalty in all circumstances. We remain particularly concerned by the imposition of the death penalty in cases of persons suffering from mental or intellectual disabilities. We urge states not to impose the death penalty in these cases. We wish to express our concern about an imminent case of execution in the United States of a person suffering from mental illness. The EU has learned that Mr. Steven Staley, who has been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia, is to be executed in the State of Texas on 23 February this year. We appeal to the appropriate authorities in the State of Texas to grant Mr. Staley relief from his death penalty. While aiming for the universal abolition of the death penalty, we seek a moratorium in all countries which retain capital punishment as a first step towards this end. …

41 US and the UN “A United Nations that focuses on helping sovereign states work together is worth keeping; a United Nations that insists on trying to impose a utopian vision on America and the world will collapse under its own weight. If the United Nations respects the sovereign rights of the American people and serves them as an effective tool of diplomacy, it will earn and deserve their respect and support. But a United Nations that seeks to impose its presumed authority on the American people without their consent begs for confrontation and, I want to be candid, eventual US withdrawal.” –Senator Jesse Helms

42 Unilateralism “I can assure you that, if he (Saddam Hussein) doesn’t comply this time, we’ll ask the U.N. to give authorization for all necessary means, and if the U.N. is not willing to do that, the United States, with like-minded nations, will go and disarm him forcefully.” –Colin Powell The US was unable to obtain the UN resolution to invade Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

43 Next The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm, and the New World Order

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