2Expansion & GrowthPer capita income doubled from (no longer in the “developing” category)Territory had tripled since 1800Number of states had almost doubled between (16 to 31)Rapid urbanizationNationalism increasedPopulation=5.3 Mil to 23mil
4Manifest DestinyBased on the belief of American superiority of democracyRevolutions of 1848 in Europe only increased American role as a democratic nation setting the example for othersYet, internally we were struggling with our expression and actions of democracy
5Cultural Life & Social Issues Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher StoweFrederick Douglass – AutobiographyWriters focused on social criticismWalt Whitman, Emily DickinsonNathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry David Thoreau“American Renaissance”
6Read Aloud: Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, An American Slave As I read, take note and imagine what it was like to be Fredrick Douglass.Pay attention to the tone and emphasis on his detail of being a slave.
8Political Parties & Slavery Third Parties: reform, nativism, religionLiberty Party – anti-slaveryFree Soil Party: no spread of slaveryadvocating the rights of non-slaveholding whitesFormed from Whigs and Liberty partiesSectional LeadersDaniel Webster: New EnglandJohn C. Calhoun: SouthHenry Clay: West
10States’ Rights & Slavery Slaves are property: Constitution protects property & property ownersSlavery promotes democracy by making sure only the qualified had the power to voteSlavery was a blessing to an inferior racePaternalistic care for the workersSlavery created the national prosperity
11Northern Fears of “The Slave Power” Both North and South favor expansion and “manifest destiny” but have different aimsEach think the other is infringing on basic civil rightsConspiracy to make the entire country a slave countrySouth demanded equality in the SenateSouth wanted Senate veto power over presidential candidates
12Two Communities, Two Perspectives Both North and South:were committed to expansion, but each viewed manifest destiny in its own terms; andshared a commitment to basic rights and liberties but saw the other as infringing on them.
13Debate & CompromiseGold Rush forces the issue when CA wants to become a free stateVideo Zachary TaylorZachary Taylor diesMillard Fillmore – more interested in compromiseVideo on Milliard Fillmore
14Compromise of 1850 California is admitted as a free state Fugitive Slave Law passed (Primary Source 15-1)Outlawed slave trade in D.C.Popular sovereignty for all territoriesRedrew border of Texas/New Mexico
16The Fugitive Slave ActCaptured slaves were at the mercy of the slave catchers – no legal right to defend themselves in courtFederal government enforced itMany blacks must now go to Canada for freedomConvinced many in the North that slavery was a moral wrong – fugitives wrote of their experiencesMobs in North tried to hinderapprehension of suspectedrunaways
17Escaped slave Anthony Burns Escaped slave Anthony Burns, shown here surrounded by scenes of his capture in 1854, was the cause of Boston’s greatest protest against the Fugitive Slave Law. The injustice of his trial and shipment back to the South converted many Bostonians to the antislavery cause.
18The Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce – Democrat & winner Winfield Scott – WhigJohn Hale – Free SoilTension at national conventions reveal cracks in the major political partiesGrowing strength of third parties
19“Young America” The Politics of Expansion Advocates free trade, social reform & expansion – John O’Sullivan “Go West Young Man”1854: Commodore Matthew Perry opened trade with JapanOstend Manifesto: proposed the U.S. buy or seize Cuba from Spain for expansion of slaveryFilibusters – individuals who became involved in the Caribbean and advocated the U.S. acquisition of territory there
20Stop: Review Learning Targets Assign: PagesLearning TargetsLunch Bunch:Discuss learning of Chapters 13 and 14.Discuss DBQ Essay
21Kansas-Nebraska ActProposed by Stephen Douglas – needed transcontinental railroad to go through IllinoisEffectively repealed the Missouri Compromise lineNegated treaties with Native AmericansKansas become battleground for sectional politicsGave momentum to the Republican Party
22Bleeding KansasViolence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlersCompeting governmentsBeecher’s BiblesNew England Emigrant Aid SocietyMissouri pro-slavery migration
23The Politics of Nativism Backlash against immigration – particularly the IrishThe American Party – Know-NothingsLimit immigrationLittle impact because of division on slavery issueAnti-Masonic PartySingle issueNever gained wide support
24The Republican Party & The Election of 1856 Republicans – national stage in this electionJames Buchanan – Democrat – won but did not get a majority of the popular voteJohn Freemont – RepublicanMillard Fillmore – American “Know-Nothing” PartySplit the country – North and South
25The Dred Scott Decision Missouri Compromise is unconstitutionalFederal government could not interfere with the movement of property in the territoriesBlacks are not citizens whether free or slaveNorth – more fear that the South wants to control the countrySouth – feels vindicated in theirposition on slavery
26The Lecompton Constitution 4 state constitutions drafted before Kansas was admitted as a statePro-slavery – supported by President BuchananTurned down by Congress – ripped apart the Democratic PartySumner – Brooks beating in the SenatePaved the way for Lincoln’s election in 1860
27The Panic of 1857Bank failure in Ohio due to embezzlement caused British investors to remove money from U.S. investmentsFalling grain pricesCollapse of land speculation programs based on future railroad expansion
28Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858Illinois Senate race – Douglas winsDouglas accused Lincoln of favoring social equality for blacks – not trueLincoln – House divided speech - “half-slave, half-free”Popular Sovereignty
30John Brown BackgroundAge 12 – saw a slave beaten, became an abolitionistNorth Elba, New York – Underground RailroadKansas – Pottawatomie Massacre – 5 dead – in response to sack of LawrenceMarried twice: 7 children with first wife, 13 children with second wife – of the 20, only 12 lived to adulthood
31John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (West Virginia) 21 men – five blacks (3 free, 1 freed slave, 1 fugitive slave)Attack armory – 100,000 muskets & rifles storedTrapped in armory by townspeople and local militia9 killed, 7 hanged – two died in Civil War and three escaped
35The Election of 1860 Lincoln – Republican – one extreme Breckenridge – Southern Democrat – other extremeDouglas – Northern DemocratJohn Bell – Constitutional Union – no position on slavery issue, former Whigs & Know NothingsStephen Douglas – only candidate with national appeal
37The South Leaves the Union South Carolina *** No surprise! – December 20, 1860Lincoln did not believe they should be permitted to secede – State Suicide theoryBuchanan as the lame duck president does nothingBy the time Lincoln takes office, 7 states have secededJefferson Davis tries to portray this as a peaceful, legal step
38Establishment of the Confederacy Southerners divide along up-country, low-country linesLincoln believed it was a crisis point for democracyHe decided to wait and see what happened before actingWanted to keep the union togetherIf I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.
39Lincoln’s Inauguration Death threats made him have to sneak into Washington, D.C.Some Southern states had seized federal propertyPledged not to interfere with slavery where it existed but was firmly against secession and seizing property