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The Coming Crisis Out of Many Chapter 15. Expansion & Growth Per capita income doubled from 1800- 1850(no longer in the “developing” category) Territory.

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Presentation on theme: "The Coming Crisis Out of Many Chapter 15. Expansion & Growth Per capita income doubled from 1800- 1850(no longer in the “developing” category) Territory."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Coming Crisis Out of Many Chapter 15

2 Expansion & Growth Per capita income doubled from (no longer in the “developing” category) Territory had tripled since 1800 Number of states had almost doubled between (16 to 31) Rapid urbanization Nationalism increased Population=5.3 Mil to 23 mil

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4 Manifest Destiny Based on the belief of American superiority of democracy Revolutions of 1848 in Europe only increased American role as a democratic nation setting the example for others Yet, internally we were struggling with our expression and actions of democracy

5 Cultural Life & Social Issues Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher Stowe Frederick Douglass – Autobiography Writers focused on social criticism –Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson –Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry David Thoreau “American Renaissance”

6 Read Aloud: Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, An American Slave As I read, take note and imagine what it was like to be Fredrick Douglass. Pay attention to the tone and emphasis on his detail of being a slave.

7 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe Sold more

8 Political Parties & Slavery Third Parties: reform, nativism, religion –Liberty Party – anti-slavery –Free Soil Party: no spread of slavery advocating the rights of non-slaveholding whites Formed from Whigs and Liberty parties Sectional Leaders –Daniel Webster: New England –John C. Calhoun: South –Henry Clay: West

9 Daniel Webster John C Calhoun Henry Clay

10 States’ Rights & Slavery Slaves are property: Constitution protects property & property owners Slavery promotes democracy by making sure only the qualified had the power to vote Slavery was a blessing to an inferior race –Paternalistic care for the workers Slavery created the national prosperity

11 Northern Fears of “The Slave Power” Both North and South favor expansion and “manifest destiny” but have different aims Each think the other is infringing on basic civil rights Conspiracy to make the entire country a slave country –South demanded equality in the Senate –South wanted Senate veto power over presidential candidates

12 Two Communities, Two Perspectives Both North and South: –were committed to expansion, but each viewed manifest destiny in its own terms; and –shared a commitment to basic rights and liberties but saw the other as infringing on them.

13 Debate & Compromise Gold Rush forces the issue when CA wants to become a free state Video Zachary Taylor Zachary Taylor dies Millard Fillmore – more interested in compromise Video on Milliard Fillmore

14 Compromise of 1850 California is admitted as a free state Fugitive Slave Law passed (Primary Source 15-1) Outlawed slave trade in D.C. Popular sovereignty for all territories Redrew border of Texas/New Mexico

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16 The Fugitive Slave Act Captured slaves were at the mercy of the slave catchers – no legal right to defend themselves in court Federal government enforced it Many blacks must now go to Canada for freedom Convinced many in the North that slavery was a moral wrong – fugitives wrote of their experiences Mobs in North tried to hinder apprehension of suspected runaways

17 Escaped slave Anthony Burns

18 The Election of 1852 Franklin Pierce – Democrat & winner Winfield Scott – Whig John Hale – Free Soil Tension at national conventions reveal cracks in the major political parties Growing strength of third parties

19 “Young America” The Politics of Expansion Advocates free trade, social reform & expansion – John O’Sullivan “Go West Young Man” 1854: Commodore Matthew Perry opened trade with Japan Ostend Manifesto: proposed the U.S. buy or seize Cuba from Spain for expansion of slavery Filibusters – individuals who became involved in the Caribbean and advocated the U.S. acquisition of territory there

20 Stop: Review Learning Targets Assign: Pages Learning Targets Lunch Bunch: Discuss learning of Chapters 13 and 14. Discuss DBQ Essay

21 Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed by Stephen Douglas – needed transcontinental railroad to go through Illinois Effectively repealed the Missouri Compromise line Negated treaties with Native Americans Kansas become battleground for sectional politics Gave momentum to the Republican Party

22 Bleeding Kansas Violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers Competing governments –Beecher’s Bibles –New England Emigrant Aid Society –Missouri pro-slavery migration

23 The Politics of Nativism Backlash against immigration – particularly the Irish The American Party – Know-Nothings –Limit immigration –Little impact because of division on slavery issue Anti-Masonic Party –Single issue –Never gained wide support

24 The Republican Party & The Election of 1856 Republicans – national stage in this election James Buchanan – Democrat – won but did not get a majority of the popular vote John Freemont – Republican Millard Fillmore – American “Know- Nothing” Party Split the country – North and South

25 The Dred Scott Decision Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional Federal government could not interfere with the movement of property in the territories Blacks are not citizens whether free or slave North – more fear that the South wants to control the country South – feels vindicated in their position on slavery

26 The Lecompton Constitution 4 state constitutions drafted before Kansas was admitted as a state Pro-slavery – supported by President Buchanan Turned down by Congress – ripped apart the Democratic Party Sumner – Brooks beating in the Senate Paved the way for Lincoln’s election in 1860

27 The Panic of 1857 Bank failure in Ohio due to embezzlement caused British investors to remove money from U.S. investments Falling grain prices Collapse of land speculation programs based on future railroad expansion

28 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Illinois Senate race – Douglas wins Douglas accused Lincoln of favoring social equality for blacks – not true Lincoln – House divided speech - “half-slave, half- free” Popular Sovereignty

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30 John Brown Background Age 12 – saw a slave beaten, became an abolitionist North Elba, New York – Underground Railroad Kansas – Pottawatomie Massacre – 5 dead – in response to sack of Lawrence Married twice: 7 children with first wife, 13 children with second wife – of the 20, only 12 lived to adulthood

31 John Brown’s Raid Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (West Virginia) 21 men – five blacks (3 free, 1 freed slave, 1 fugitive slave) Attack armory – 100,000 muskets & rifles stored Trapped in armory by townspeople and local militia 9 killed, 7 hanged – two died in Civil War and three escaped

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33 Impact of John Brown’s Raid Martyr to abolitionists Julia Ward Howe – John Brown’s Body Symbol of violence to Southerners Hardens the position of both sides

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35 The Election of 1860 Lincoln – Republican – one extreme Breckenridge – Southern Democrat – other extreme Douglas – Northern Democrat John Bell – Constitutional Union – no position on slavery issue, former Whigs & Know Nothings Stephen Douglas – only candidate with national appeal

36 Narrow Victory

37 The South Leaves the Union South Carolina *** No surprise! – December 20, 1860 Lincoln did not believe they should be permitted to secede – State Suicide theory Buchanan as the lame duck president does nothing By the time Lincoln takes office, 7 states have seceded Jefferson Davis tries to portray this as a peaceful, legal step

38 Establishment of the Confederacy Southerners divide along up-country, low- country lines Lincoln believed it was a crisis point for democracy –He decided to wait and see what happened before acting –Wanted to keep the union together –If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.

39 Lincoln’s Inauguration Death threats made him have to sneak into Washington, D.C. Some Southern states had seized federal property Pledged not to interfere with slavery where it existed but was firmly against secession and seizing property


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