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Review: Turner thesis: New frontiers beckoned (ASIA/China) Mahan’s Treatise: US navy served to enhance and protect US commercial interests (and frontiers)

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Presentation on theme: "Review: Turner thesis: New frontiers beckoned (ASIA/China) Mahan’s Treatise: US navy served to enhance and protect US commercial interests (and frontiers)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Review: Turner thesis: New frontiers beckoned (ASIA/China) Mahan’s Treatise: US navy served to enhance and protect US commercial interests (and frontiers) worldwide Anglo-Saxon Mission: a leading justification for US expansion into Asia and Latin America  Results: US prestige in the world had increased US had reaffirmed the intent and meaning of the Monroe Doctrine US had completed its stepping stones to China by “going through Spain”

2 Review: Important Motives for US Expansion:  CLOSING OF THE FRONTIER: signaled the end of progress, expansion and opportunity; high expectations end; catalyst for democracy gone; urban problems and social unrest prove the Turner “thesis” to be true. Find new frontiers!  ECONOMIC MOTIVES: mercantilism/favorable balance of trade, new markets, access to raw materials, and cheap labor  SOCIAL/RELIGIOUS/CULTURAL MOTIVES: Christian (Anglo-Saxon) mission, social Darwinism, superior race/culture, superior (democratic) government, an extension of Manifest Destiny beyond the shores of the United States  POLITICAL and MILITARY MOTIVES: national security, 2 naval fleets (Atlantic & Pacific), Monroe Doctrine, compete w/European powers, Mahan’s “Sea Power” premise, establish colonies for creation of harbors, stepping stones to China  Was the US decision to engage in a policy of imperialism the correct one? Did the US achieve “progress” in challenging this new “frontier”?

3 Opening the Door to China

4 CHINA : Should the US employ the same aggressive strategy in China as the one that got us to China’s doorstep?  Imperialist nations with interests in China and Asia: Japan, Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and, finally, the USA  Important issue: CONFLICT There are potential and real conflicts in China…what are they?  What are the SHORT and LONG term consequences of US and other Western nation’s presence in China and the rest of Asia?  Read “Hinging the Open Door in China” (pp. 648-9) and get a paper copy and list the provisions of “The First Open Door Note” (at my website).

5 Internationalism in Asia : Pre-existing, foreign territorial “SPHERES OF INFLUENCE”  FRANCE: Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam)  GERMANY: interests in Eastern China (no colonies)  RUSSIA: Manchuria, Northern China (coal and iron ore)  JAPAN: Manchuria, Korea and Taiwan (Formosa)  BRITAIN: India, Nepal, Tibet, Burma, Hong Kong, Siam (Thailand), Malaysia, Borneo, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand and Shantung (Plus Africa, Middle East, Americas and Pacific) (Pure greed…)  USA: Hawaii, Guam, Samoa and Philippines  PROBLEMS:  China holds “competing economic and geographic interests” for several imperialist powers.  We cannot assume that these competing nations will compete peacefully.  Nations are promoting national goals while trying to preserve international peace.  AGAIN: Can we use the same aggressive strategy in China as we used with Spain?

6 The US “solves” the problems: The Open Door Note, 1899 US Secretary of State John Hay  Provisions of OPEN DOOR:  Nations agree to preserve China’s territorial integrity  Recognize and not interfere in other nation’s “spheres of influence” in China  Obey and respect China’s tariff policies; making all subject to them  This protects US interests in China; thereby protecting each nations’ interests in China  No discrimination between nations within China  Extraterritoriality – China governs its land and its people, but not the foreigners.  Precedents set by Open Door Policy:  US is setting policy for other nations to follow  US is in a role of being mediator in cases of policy violations  US prestige in the world has increased  US recognized as a world power by other world powers  Increased US “influence” in international affairs  “the 20 th century will be the ‘American Century’” - Sen. Albert Beveridge  Is this policy in the best interests of the US in 1900?

7 US Foreign Policy in China: A new role, a new direction, and an evaluation:  “Open Door” extends Monroe Doctrine to Asia  Intent of “Open Door Policy” To balance POWER in China, not to assume more power International an agreement for “free trade”.  US made China policy for ALL nations.  Is “extraterritoriality” colonial?  Are “spheres of influence” colonies?  What would George Washington have thought about the Open Door Policy?  What are the dangers and the by-products of Open Door?

8 By-Products of the Open Door Policy  The BOXER REBELLION – Brotherhood of the Righteous Fists (1899-1901):  Chinese rebellion against foreigners that was “put down” by a coalition of foreign forces (“8 Nation Alliance”) in China – quite a departure for the US…why?  RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR (1904) 1.Russian troops had been in Manchuria to fight the Boxers and refused to withdraw them afterwards; ready to defend their sphere of influence there and cede Korea. 2.Superior Japanese forces attacked (and DESTROYED) the Russian fleet and forced the retreat of Russian forces from Manchuria, thus upsetting the balance of power in China…which violates the spirit of Open Door. 3.Teddy Roosevelt (TR) negotiated the Treaty of Portsmouth, in which: 1.Both would evacuate Manchuria but Japan would control 2 ports in Manchuria, both would have access to resources in Manchuria, Sakhalin Island would be split between both (gave Russia a warm water port on Pacific Ocean) 4.Japan gained the most, yet felt slighted by the terms of the treaty, thus setting the stage for future conflict….with what nation? 1.This confirmed Japan’s arrival as the pre-eminent nation in Asia. 5.1906 Nobel Peace Prize for TR  “the 20 th century will be the ‘American century’” – Senator Albert Beveridge (1901)

9 Assignment for Next Time!  Read pp. 652-661 in text book.  Analyze and interpret the images on pages 654-661 and write a newspaper headline that characterizes TR’s presidency according to those images  Find the following at my website: “The Roosevelt Corollary”…list its provisions. The political cartoon entitled “The World’s Constable”…analyze the cartoon and explain its meaning.

10 The Election of 1900 McKinley (Republican) vs. Bryan (Democrat) No. 1 Issue: IMPERIALISM McKinley was elected thus affirming the continuation of an aggressive foreign policy of expansionism and intervention although his victory is not seen as a mandate from the people. Sept. 6, 1901 – McKinley assassinated – TR became president

11 Who was Theodore Roosevelt? His Foreign Policy: 1901-1909 “The US should never exercise restraint in international affairs.” (What do you think about his point of view?)  Analyze the photo of and quote by TR. What does it tell you about him?  What personal characteristics made TR the “first modern US president”.  TR has also been characterized as an “American Original”. What do you think that means and why do you think he’s been characterized that way?  “newspaper headline”


13 TR’s Foreign Policy: The Roosevelt Corollary (1904) (or the “BIG STICK” POLICY)  Corrupt, bankrupt nations of the Caribbean had defaulted on loans made by European nations.  TR’s corollary was designed (in his mind) to maintain order, create stability and promote prosperity among western nations.  Stated that the US would INTERVENE as a “policeman” in the event of the following:  (1) activities “harmful” to the US and the region  (2) potential collapse of a nation’s government  (3) possible intervention by stronger nations “intervene to prevent intervention”  Instrument of enforcement: US military (navy).  Bottom line: US will use the Monroe Doctrine and its military to intervene in Latin America.  Our Latin neighbors must be good neighbors…  Are nations entitled to complete sovereignty if they fail to exercise it properly?  Are there different rules of international behavior for small nations and large nations?


15 Some of the Over 35 US Interventions in Latin America (“justified” by Roosevelt Corollary)  1901-Cuba  1903-Panama/Colombia  1912-Nicaragua  1914-Mexico  1915-Haiti and Dominican Republic  1954-Guatemala  1961-Cuba  1965-Dominican Republic  1968-Chile  1970s-El Salvador  1981-Nicaragua  1983-Grenada  1989-Panama  Present: Colombia, Haiti, (Venezuela??)

16 1903-The Panama Canal:  European background English/French company owned the rights to build a canal in Nicaragua. This conflicts with the Monroe Doctrine, but there wasn’t much we could do about unless we wanted war w/GB and France.  The US wanted the rights to build, operate and control the canal and the land surrounding it.  Challenge: find a way to get the rights to build the canal and then build it while preserving control over every aspect of the canal and Canal Zone.



19 Securing the Panama Canal Zone  Canal was essential to Open Door, national security and trade.  The “Diplomatic” Approach – 3 treaties and 1 revolution:  1. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty : US bought the exclusive rights to build canal from England for $40M, removing European interests from the region.  2. Hay-Herran Treaty : offered to pay $10M and $250,000 a year to Colombia Colombia rejected the treaty. Hay’s “message” to Colombia.  Panamanian “Revolt”: The US “promoted” and supported this revolt against the Colombian government by Panamanian “revolutionaries” using “gunboat” diplomacy. Revolution is a success!  3. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty : not signed by any representative of Panama, the canal would be controlled by the US “in perpetuity” under the same terms of the Hay-Herran Treaty.  We secure the canal for trade, have a presence in Latin America and bring our “ideals” to Latin America.  The canal is ours!!….do the ends justify the means?

20 The Panama Canal and its Impact 1.The benefits are obvious. 2.Is this aggressive empire building by the US or promoting liberty, order, stability and prosperity in Latin America? 3.Were TR’s goals and his methods of asserting US power in the Western Hemisphere and acquiring the Canal for US interests “honorable”? 4.1977 – The Panama Canal Treaty – The canal zone was returned to Panama on 31 Dec 1999. Good idea?

21 More TR:  Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) US president (TR) seen as conciliatory (flexible and compromising) and as a ‘peace maker’.  Treaty of Algeciras (1906): TR asked by Kaiser Wilhelm to mediate in conflict between France and Germany and their ambitions in Morocco. Result: Open Door in Morocco; war averted…for a few years! Precedent: US president as mediator in European conflicts (betrays Monroe Doctrine). Problems: US and GB supported France’s claims and treaty results in increased hostility between Germany and France  Gentlemen ’s Agreement (1907) – main issue was the mistreatment and discrimination of Japanese immigrants in America. Agreement was to end both Japanese immigration AND discrimination in US.  Root-Takahira Agreement (1908)- US-Japan agree to: (1) defend and uphold Open Door Policy, (2) guarantee China ’s territorial integrity (3) recognize each others territorial claims in Asia (prevented TR from appearing weak)  TR is CLEARLY concerned about US-Japan relations.

22 Five final points and two questions regarding TR, his foreign policy and his presidency:  TR was concerned with a geographic empire and with promoting the principles of liberty, justice, freedom and democracy.  Roosevelt Corollary became the instrument of Monroe Doctrine, thus aggressively enforcing its original intent.  Under it, nations in Latin America were not sovereign unless they obeyed the rules made by the USA.  TR’s foreign policy has had a great impact on US-Latin American relations since 1900 (both positive and negative).  TR’s efforts contributed greatly to the power and prestige of the presidency and the United States.  Had you lived during the era, would you have supported TR as president?  Would you have considered him a “great president”?

23 President William Howard Taft

24 US Foreign Policy: President William H. Taft 1909-1913– DOLLAR DIPLOMACY (pages 683 and 684 in American Pageant)  TR’s “hand picked” successor : expected to follow TR’s ideals as the President  Remember…Latin American nations had defaulted on loans from European countries – led to “Big Stick Policy”  “Dollar Diplomacy”: Taft’s foreign policy centered around American economic investment in Latin America.  Wall St. bankers and wealthy investors were encouraged to preempt foreign investment in Asia and Latin America.  The US military would be used to protect US economic interests as the US dollar replaced the US Navy as the primary instrument of the policy.  Increased commercial and investment opportunities for the US  Increased US financial power  Counterbalanced other nation’s financial power in the world  Resentment in Europe and Latin America towards the US.  Created new “enemies” as nations competed for new markets.  *Accordingly, the US became increasingly isolated from the European powers.  US “economic imperialism” replaced Roosevelt’s expansionism in Asia and Western Hemisphere.  How do you think TR responded to this abrupt change in direction?

25 The Election of 1912 A “defining moment in US politics”  Upset by Taft’s betrayal, TR, a Republican, decided to run for president…again…  Taft won the Republican nomination for president.  Undeterred, TR formed his own party, “the Bull Moose” or “Progressive” Party and ran for president.  Woodrow Wilson won Democratic party nomination.  Who won this 3 candidate election and why?

26 The winner: Woodrow Wilson

27 US Foreign Policy: 1913-1916 - A SHARP Contrast... Woodrow Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy” (pages 693 to 696 in American Pageant) “Moral Diplomacy”: US foreign policy should conform to our traditional democratic principles. US should:  remain out of foreign entanglements and conflicts and maintain a position of neutrality in international affairs (ESPECIALLY European affairs).  help foster the development of constitutional liberty in the world, advance human rights, create opportunity and promote justice. This approach to diplomacy would restore our prestige around the world and would be true to our own traditions. Panama Canal Tolls Act - Open use of canal by all nations on an entirely equal basis (1912) Jones Act (1913) - promised Philippines their independence “as soon as a stable government could be established” and defined status of Puerto Rico (1917). 1915 – Put down rebellion and stabilize governments in Haiti and Dominican Republic – US remained there for 20 and 10 years respectively to protect US interests and keep France from intervening to protect its interests there. Mexican Revolution (1913)-US did not intervene to defend our “material interests” in Mexico, but Mexican-American relations deteriorated to the point of near war.

28 Review: American Imperialism: 1899 - 1916  China and Open Door Policy Boxers, Russo-Japanese war, etc.  Roosevelt and “Big Stick Policy” (Roosevelt Corollary) in Americas Panama Canal and US Intervention in the Americas  Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”  Wilson’s “ Moral Diplomacy ”  TR as an “American original” and “1 st modern president”  Which of the 3 presidents represent your own personal viewpoint of US diplomatic policy during this time?  Test will cover Chapter 28 (TR); pages 683-684 (Taft) and pages 693-696 (Wilson). MC questions and 4-5 historical significance questions.  DBQ to follow!!

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