4Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Barbara Streisand, actressAlso dated: Clint Eastwood, actorJoe Namath, NFL NY Jets QBAndre Agassi, famous tennis playerRichard Gere, actorWarren Beatty, actorLiam Neeson, actorJames Brolin, actor
5Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Bianca Jagger, later ex-wife of Mick Jagger (Rolling Stones)Also dated: Warren Beatty, actorMick Jagger, rock musicianDavid Bowie, rock musicianBjorn Borg, famous tennis player
6Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Margot Kidder (Lois Lane in superman movies)Also dated: Steven Spielberg
10PIERRE ELLIOT TRUDEAUCanadian Nationalist – believed in a strong central governmentOpposed to Maurice Duplessis & Quiet Revolution.Intellectual – spent the first part of his life as a unionist and a MarxistRENE LEVESQUEQuebec nationalist premier elected in 1976Wanted to have a referendum on Quebec “sovereignty-association”
11PIERRE ELLIOT TRUDEAU1. JUST SOCIETY Trudeau used this phrase to explain his policies, which included things like Constitutional Charter of Rights and Freedoms and official bilingualism2. BI+BI COMMISSION Advises Trudeau to create the Official Languages Act Canada now has two official languages, officially
12RENE LEVESQUE3. Quebecois want “sovereignty-association”Trudeau feels that they are an integral part of Canada, and should cooperate with his vision.
13FLQ CRISIS OCT 1970James Cross, a British diplomat, is kidnapped.FLQ demand the release of “political prisoners.”Gov’t says “We don’t negotiate with terrorists.”Pierre Laporte, Quebec’s Minister of Labour, is kidnapped.Trudeau imposes the War Measures Act The only time it was ever used in peacetime.
171976 – Rene Levesque becomes Quebec’s nationalist PREMIER
18Levesque promises a referendum on sovereignty-association
19Introduces Bill 101 French is the only language of Quebec French and only French was allowed on storefronts, signs and posters inside stores, billboards and all other signs of a commercial nature.MTL became the first city to have a Chinatown with no Chinese signs allowed.Goal was to remove English signs.Law was later changed to allow other languages as long as French was twice as big.
23Levesque asks Quebec residents: The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations;this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency;any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum;on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?
241980 REFERENDUM: 40% OUI: LET QUEBEC SEPERATE 60% NON: KEEP QUEBEC PART OF CANADAOver 85 per cent of eligible voters participated in the referendum.Although relieved by the result, Prime Minister Trudeau recognized the 40 per cent of voters seeking an independent Quebec when he said, "We have all lost a little in this referendum."
251980 ReferendumQuestion worded confusinglyHigh voter turnoutTrudeau says “We have lost a little”
261982 Trudeau wants the creation of a Canadian Constitution.
27GOALS A) CANADIAN IDENTITY Constitution should be in Not
28GOALS B) CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS Protect rights FIRMLY
29PROBLEM C) AMMENDING FORMULA How to get all the provinces to agree when all want special considerations.
301982: PATRIATION OF THE CONSTITUTION Following the NON vote in Quebec, Trudeau felt Canada needed a constitution of its own to make the country a full-fledged nationHe went about he process of adding a Charter of Rights and Freedoms to the Constitution.
31NOTWITHSTANDING Allowed governments to temporarily NOT uphold the Charter of Rights and Freedoms Included to appease the regionalist governments.
32Many of the provinces did not like his plan, especially some of the changes he proposed that made the federal government stronger. They rejected his plan.In 1981, the government decided to host a FIRST MINISTERS’ CONFERENCE, where all the premiers get together with the prime minister.During the Night of the Long Knives, Trudeau reached an agreement with the rest of the provinces, but left Quebec out.He decided to go ahead and create a new constitution without Quebec’s support.
34Quebeckers felt betrayed. They vowed that the fight was not over. Quebec refused to sign the new constitution, and promised another referendum in the future.In 1984, Pierre Elliott Trudeau resigned as Prime Minister.
35Elected as Prime Minister in 1984. BRIAN MULRONEYElected as Prime Minister in 1984.He wanted to bring Quebec into the Constitution.He called a FIRST MINISTERS’ MEETING to get Quebec to sign on.The conference took place at MEECH LAKE in 1987.
36THE PROBLEMS PREMIERS BARGAIN ALL NIGHT Brian Mulroney gets a deal. Each premier wants their own issue added to agenda: EXAMPLES:FisheriesSenate reformQuebec wants a veto over future changes to the constitution.“Distinct Society” ClausePREMIERS BARGAIN ALL NIGHTBrian Mulroney gets a deal.
37The deal must be ratified in the provincial legislatures. Elijah Harper, an MLA in Manitoba, is outraged that First Nations peoples and Aboriginal peoples were not consulted during the Meech Lake debate.He stages a filibuster that prevents Manitoba from approving the Meech Lake deal.Meech Lake needed to be approved by all of the provinces by the end of the legislative year. It can’t be. MEECH LAKE DIES.
39- Things for Provinces: Forestry, Mining, Cultural policy, natural resourcesGuaranteed Funding for Provincial ProgramsQuebec gets 3 of 9 Supreme Court justices, guaranteed- Other things:Aboriginal self-governmentQuebec as a "distinct society"Senate reformed: 6 seats for each province, for each territory, some seats for Aboriginal votersReduced senate powersDouble Majority of French Canadian seatsFairer allocation of HoC seats
40FOR ITWOMENCONSERVATIVES, LIBERALS, NDPFIRST NATIONSBUSINESS GROUPSENGLISH CANADA50% OF QUEBECAGAINST ITFORMER PRIME MINISTER PIERRE TRUDEAUPRESTON MANNING'S NEW REFORM PARTY opposed distinct societyQUEBEC SOVEREIGNTISTS SAID QUEBEC NEEDS MORE POWERS
41MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL: Closer ties with the United States PRESIDENT RONALD REAGANUsing ground and space-based systems to prevent US from attack by nuclear ballistic missiles.BRIAN
42MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL: Closer ties with the United States negotiated in 1988 with Bush Sr.very controversial in ’88 election. More Canadians voted for anti-NAFTA parties but Conservatives won more seatsIncoming President Bill Clinton introduced additional clauses on environment.PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH (Sr.)BRIAN
43Had held four cabinet portfolios prior to becoming PM, giving her more experience than 11 of 18 men who were PM before her, including Mulroney, Joe Clark and Pierre Trudeau.Canada’s first woman PM.First Baby Boomer prime minister.Took over from Brian Mulroney as PM in June 1993.Lasted 5 months as PM.KIM CAMPBELL:’93
441993 ELECTION RESULTSREGIONALISM BEGINS TO SPLIT THE COUNTRY APART
46CAMPBELL’S CONSERVATIVES LOST THE ELECTION BADLY? WHY SO BADLY? UNDER MULRONEY, Canada’s national debt had grown 4 times between ! It was 100,000 million when he started, and 400,000 million when he ended!NAFTA – not all Canadians agreed that we should be so close to the Americans.GST – Liberals under Chretien said they would get rid of this tax … they didn’t cuz it’s hard to turn down free money.
47Nov. 28, 1989: "Mr. Speaker, the goods and services tax is a stupid, inept and incompetent tax." - Liberal MP Paul MartinApril 4, 1990: "I would abolish the GST.'' - Liberal MP Paul MartinMay 2, 1994: "We hate it and we will kill it." - Prime Minister Jean ChretienNov. 1, 2007 - The Canadian Press: "[Liberal Leader]Stephane Dion's suggestion that he might one day increase the goods-and-services tax had some of his Liberal troops shaking their heads Wednesday."Dec. 18, 2008: "So I'm not going to take a GST hike off the table later. I just think it'd be a bad idea now in a recession." - Liberal Leader Michael IgnatieffJan. 29, 2010 - Liberal MP calls for debate on increasing GST
48IN 1993, voters turn to the LIBERALS IN 1993, voters turn to the LIBERALS! The new prime minister is Jean Chretien.He was a key minister in Pierre Trudeau’s governmentLed the fight against separation in 1980.
49ERASING THE DEFICITUnder Jean Chretien and Paul Martin, the Liberals in the 1990s imposed the greatest spending cuts in Canadian history.Started with $42 billion deficit.Slashed corporate and personal taxesPaid down billions of the national debt.
50PARTI QUEBECOIS ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T Continues to be the voice of Quebec in the 1990s Led by Jacques Parizeau
51PARTI QUEBECOIS ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T Continues to be the voice of Quebec in the 1990s Led by Jacques ParizeauBLOC QUEBECOIS forms to represent Quebec at a national level and is the Official Opposition fromLed by former Mulroney Conservative Cabinet MinisterLUCIEN BOUCHARD
52WESTERN ALIENATION ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2nd largest party from s.SENATE REFORM: PRESTON MANNING Wants equal seats for all provinces Proposes the Triple E Senate.
53WESTERN ALIENATION ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2nd largest party from s.NATURAL RESOURCES: PRIMARILY ALBERTA Concerned about the NEP Don’t want the wealth distributed, they want to keep it and be a rich province!!!
54WESTERN ALIENATION ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2nd largest party from s.SPECIAL TREATMENT: “DISTINCT SOCIETY” Don’t like that Ontario always looks out for Ontario Sick and tired of French people always getting special consideration.