Presentation on theme: "Pierre Elliott Trudeau Canada’s most charismatic Prime Minister."— Presentation transcript:
Pierre Elliott Trudeau Canada’s most charismatic Prime Minister
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Barbara Streisand, actress Also dated: Clint Eastwood, actor Joe Namath, NFL NY Jets QB Andre Agassi, famous tennis player Richard Gere, actor Warren Beatty, actor Liam Neeson, actor James Brolin, actor
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Bianca Jagger, later ex-wife of Mick Jagger (Rolling Stones) Also dated: Warren Beatty, actor Mick Jagger, rock musician David Bowie, rock musician Bjorn Borg, famous tennis player
Trudeau Dated Celebrities like: Margot Kidder (Lois Lane in superman movies) Also dated: Steven Spielberg
PIERRE ELLIOT TRUDEAU Canadian Nationalist – believed in a strong central government Opposed to Maurice Duplessis & Quiet Revolution. Intellectual – spent the first part of his life as a unionist and a Marxist RENE LEVESQUE Quebec nationalist premier elected in 1976 Wanted to have a referendum on Quebec “sovereignty-association”
PIERRE ELLIOT TRUDEAU 1. JUST SOCIETY Trudeau used this phrase to explain his policies, which included things like Constitutional Charter of Rights and Freedoms and official bilingualism 2. BI+BI COMMISSION Advises Trudeau to create the Official Languages Act Canada now has two official languages, officially
RENE LEVESQUE 3. Quebecois want “sovereignty- association” Trudeau feels that they are an integral part of Canada, and should cooperate with his vision.
FLQ CRISIS OCT 1970 1.James Cross, a British diplomat, is kidnapped. 2.FLQ demand the release of “political prisoners.” 3.Gov’t says “We don’t negotiate with terrorists.” 4.Pierre Laporte, Quebec’s Minister of Labour, is kidnapped. 5.Trudeau imposes the War Measures Act The only time it was ever used in peacetime.
ARMY CALLED IN How far will you go? “Just watch me.” Gov’t arrest pro-separatists Find LaPorte’s body in a car trunk, dead. Cross is located.
Kidnappers flee to CUBA
1976 – Rene Levesque becomes Quebec’s nationalist PREMIER
Levesque promises a referendum on sovereignty-association
Introduces Bill 101 French is the only language of Quebec French and only French was allowed on storefronts, signs and posters inside stores, billboards and all other signs of a commercial nature. MTL became the first city to have a Chinatown with no Chinese signs allowed. Goal was to remove English signs. Law was later changed to allow other languages as long as French was twice as big.
Levesque asks Quebec residents: The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?
1980 REFERENDUM: 40% OUI: LET QUEBEC SEPERATE 60% NON: KEEP QUEBEC PART OF CANADA Over 85 per cent of eligible voters participated in the referendum. Although relieved by the result, Prime Minister Trudeau recognized the 40 per cent of voters seeking an independent Quebec when he said, "We have all lost a little in this referendum."
1980 Referendum Question worded confusingly High voter turnout Trudeau says “We have lost a little”
1982 Trudeau wants the creation of a Canadian Constitution.
GOALS A) CANADIAN IDENTITY Constitution should be in Not
GOALS B) CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS Protect rights FIRMLY
PROBLEM C) AMMENDING FORMULA How to get all the provinces to agree when all want special considerations.
1982: PATRIATION OF THE CONSTITUTION Following the NON vote in Quebec, Trudeau felt Canada needed a constitution of its own to make the country a full-fledged nation He went about he process of adding a Charter of Rights and Freedoms to the Constitution.
NOTWITHSTANDING Allowed governments to temporarily NOT uphold the Charter of Rights and Freedoms Included to appease the regionalist governments.
Many of the provinces did not like his plan, especially some of the changes he proposed that made the federal government stronger. They rejected his plan. In 1981, the government decided to host a FIRST MINISTERS’ CONFERENCE, where all the premiers get together with the prime minister. During the Night of the Long Knives, Trudeau reached an agreement with the rest of the provinces, but left Quebec out. He decided to go ahead and create a new constitution without Quebec’s support.
PATRIATION OF THE CONSTITUTION 1982
Quebeckers felt betrayed. They vowed that the fight was not over. Quebec refused to sign the new constitution, and promised another referendum in the future. In 1984, Pierre Elliott Trudeau resigned as Prime Minister.resigned
BRIAN MULRONEY Elected as Prime Minister in 1984. He wanted to bring Quebec into the Constitution. He called a FIRST MINISTERS’ MEETING to get Quebec to sign on. The conference took place at MEECH LAKE in 1987.
THE PROBLEMS Each premier wants their own issue added to agenda: EXAMPLES: Fisheries Senate reform Quebec wants a veto over future changes to the constitution. “Distinct Society” Clause PREMIERS BARGAIN ALL NIGHT Brian Mulroney gets a deal.
The deal must be ratified in the provincial legislatures. Elijah Harper, an MLA in Manitoba, is outraged that First Nations peoples and Aboriginal peoples were not consulted during the Meech Lake debate. He stages a filibuster that prevents Manitoba from approving the Meech Lake deal. Meech Lake needed to be approved by all of the provinces by the end of the legislative year. It can’t be. MEECH LAKE DIES.
CHARLOTTETOWN ACCORD (1992): MULRONEY TRIES AGAIN
- Things for Provinces: Forestry, Mining, Cultural policy, natural resources Guaranteed Funding for Provincial Programs Quebec gets 3 of 9 Supreme Court justices, guaranteed - Other things: Aboriginal self-government Quebec as a "distinct society" Senate reformed: 6 seats for each province, 1 for each territory, some seats for Aboriginal voters Reduced senate powers Double Majority of French Canadian seats Fairer allocation of HoC seats
FOR IT WOMEN CONSERVATIVES, LIBERALS, NDP FIRST NATIONS BUSINESS GROUPS ENGLISH CANADA 50% OF QUEBEC AGAINST IT FORMER PRIME MINISTER PIERRE TRUDEAU PRESTON MANNING'S NEW REFORM PARTY opposed distinct society QUEBEC SOVEREIGNTISTS SAID QUEBEC NEEDS MORE POWERS
MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL: Closer ties with the United States BRIAN PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN Using ground and space-based systems to prevent US from attack by nuclear ballistic missiles.
MULRONEY’S OTHER GOAL: Closer ties with the United States BRIAN PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH (Sr.) - negotiated in 1988 with Bush Sr. - very controversial in ’88 election. More Canadians voted for anti-NAFTA parties but Conservatives won more seats - Incoming President Bill Clinton introduced additional clauses on environment.
Had held four cabinet portfolios prior to becoming PM, giving her more experience than 11 of 18 men who were PM before her, including Mulroney, Joe Clark and Pierre Trudeau. Canada’s first woman PM. First Baby Boomer prime minister. Took over from Brian Mulroney as PM in June 1993. Lasted 5 months as PM. KIM CAMPBELL:’ 93
1993 ELECTION RESULTS REGIONALISM BEGINS TO SPLIT THE COUNTRY APART
CAMPBELL’S CONSERVATIVES LOST THE ELECTION BADLY? WHY SO BADLY? -UNDER MULRONEY, Canada’s national debt had grown 4 times between 1984-1993! It was 100,000 million when he started, and 400,000 million when he ended! -NAFTA – not all Canadians agreed that we should be so close to the Americans. -GST – Liberals under Chretien said they would get rid of this tax … they didn’t cuz it’s hard to turn down free money.
Nov. 28, 1989: "Mr. Speaker, the goods and services tax is a stupid, inept and incompetent tax." - Liberal MP Paul Martin April 4, 1990: "I would abolish the GST.'' - Liberal MP Paul Martin May 2, 1994: "We hate it and we will kill it." - Prime Minister Jean Chretien Nov. 1, 2007 - The Canadian Press: "[Liberal Leader]Stephane Dion's suggestion that he might one day increase the goods-and- services tax had some of his Liberal troops shaking their heads Wednesday." Dec. 18, 2008: "So I'm not going to take a GST hike off the table later. I just think it'd be a bad idea now in a recession." - Liberal Leader Michael Ignatieff Jan. 29, 2010 - Liberal MP calls for debate on increasing GSTGST
IN 1993, voters turn to the LIBERALS! The new prime minister is Jean Chretien. -He was a key minister in Pierre Trudeau’s government -Led the fight against separation in 1980.
ERASING THE DEFICIT Under Jean Chretien and Paul Martin, the Liberals in the 1990s imposed the greatest spending cuts in Canadian history. Started with $42 billion deficit. Slashed corporate and personal taxes Paid down billions of the national debt.
ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T PARTI QUEBECOIS Continues to be the voice of Quebec in the 1990s Led by Jacques Parizeau
ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T PARTI QUEBECOIS Continues to be the voice of Quebec in the 1990s Led by Jacques Parizeau BLOC QUEBECOIS forms to represent Quebec at a national level and is the Official Opposition from 1993-1997. Led by former Mulroney Conservative Cabinet Minister LUCIEN BOUCHARD
ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T WESTERN ALIENATION Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2 nd largest party from 1997-2000s. SENATE REFORM: PRESTON MANNING Wants equal seats for all provinces. Proposes the Triple E Senate.
ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T WESTERN ALIENATION Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2 nd largest party from 1997-2000s. NATURAL RESOURCES: PRIMARILY ALBERTA Concerned about the NEP Don’t want the wealth distributed, they want to keep it and be a rich province!!!
ISSUES FACING CHRETIEN’S GOV’T WESTERN ALIENATION Represented by the REFORM PARTY, which is the 2 nd largest party from 1997-2000s. SPECIAL TREATMENT: “DISTINCT SOCIETY” Don’t like that Ontario always looks out for Ontario Sick and tired of French people always getting special consideration.