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Globalisation & Multiculturalism: The Australian Experience Griffith University Southbank 15 September, 2010 Dr Paul Williams.

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Presentation on theme: "Globalisation & Multiculturalism: The Australian Experience Griffith University Southbank 15 September, 2010 Dr Paul Williams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Globalisation & Multiculturalism: The Australian Experience Griffith University Southbank 15 September, 2010 Dr Paul Williams

2 Guiding Questions What is ‘Globalisation’? What is ‘Globalisation’? How did Australia become ‘globalised’? How did Australia become ‘globalised’? How has Australia economically integrated with the world? How has Australia economically integrated with the world? What is multiculturalism? What is multiculturalism? How did Australia become ‘multicultural’? How did Australia become ‘multicultural’? What are Australia’s migration patterns? What are Australia’s migration patterns?

3 Part One Globalisation

4 Defining ‘Globalisation’ Defies easy definition Defies easy definition Two common uses: A “thing” in itself (an ‘outcome’) A “thing” in itself (an ‘outcome’) An explanation of change (a ‘process’) An explanation of change (a ‘process’)

5 Defining ‘Globalisation’ “A process in which the economic, political & cultural separation between nations is breaking down & an international order is emerging” (Smith, Vromen & Cook 2006). “A process in which the economic, political & cultural separation between nations is breaking down & an international order is emerging” (Smith, Vromen & Cook 2006).

6 Defining ‘Globalisation’ “A process occurring in the economic, political & social realms which is the result of the dismantling of fixed boundaries around nations, cultures and economies” (Ryan et al. 1999). “A process occurring in the economic, political & social realms which is the result of the dismantling of fixed boundaries around nations, cultures and economies” (Ryan et al. 1999). What’s common in these definitions? What’s common in these definitions?

7 Globalisation covers… Economic (trade, transnational corporations [TNCs]) Economic (trade, transnational corporations [TNCs]) Technological (communication, Technological (communication, transport) transport) Media (diversity, reach) Media (diversity, reach) Migratory (business, tourism, politics) Migratory (business, tourism, politics) Cultural (export of ideas, beliefs, fashions) Cultural (export of ideas, beliefs, fashions) Legal (international treaties, bodies) Legal (international treaties, bodies)

8 When did Globalisation begin? Many assume it began in the 1980s & 1990s, but it’s as old as imperialism, trade & colonialism Many assume it began in the 1980s & 1990s, but it’s as old as imperialism, trade & colonialism i.e. a process begun hundreds of years ago! i.e. a process begun hundreds of years ago!

9 Imperialism / Colonialism Late 1700s – early 1900s: apex Late 1700s – early 1900s: apex European demand for ‘foreign’ goods European demand for ‘foreign’ goods Europe’s “scramble for colonies” Europe’s “scramble for colonies” British, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, German, French colonise… British, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, German, French colonise… Africa, Asia, South America, Pacific Africa, Asia, South America, Pacific One cause of World War One ( ) One cause of World War One ( )

10 Technological Globalisation – connecting Australia to the world Early 1800s - Steam ships Early 1800s - Steam ships Australia linked by telegraph line to Java (capital could be moved in matter of hours, not days or weeks) Australia linked by telegraph line to Java (capital could be moved in matter of hours, not days or weeks) 1900s – telephones 1900s – telephones 1910s – cinema 1910s – cinema 1920s – propeller aircraft 1920s – propeller aircraft 1930s – radio 1930s – radio 1950s – television 1950s – television 1960s – jet aircraft 1960s – jet aircraft 1970s – fax machines 1970s – fax machines 1990s – internet 1990s – internet web communications web communications

11 Political & Cultural Globalisation for Australia Open migration pre-1900 Open migration pre – WW1 (League of Nations) [failed] – WW1 (League of Nations) [failed] – WW2 (United Nations) – WW2 (United Nations) 1940s on – mass migration from Europe 1940s on – mass migration from Europe 1960s on – flood of US popular culture 1960s on – flood of US popular culture – end of White Australia Policy – end of White Australia Policy 1970s – migration from Asia 1970s – migration from Asia 2000s – migration from Africa 2000s – migration from Africa

12 Some Global Economic Instruments 1944 est. International Monetary Fund (IMF) & World Bank 1944 est. International Monetary Fund (IMF) & World Bank : GATT – negotiator of lower tariffs; various ‘rounds’ : GATT – negotiator of lower tariffs; various ‘rounds’

13 WTO World Trade Organisation (WTO) – est – successor to GATT World Trade Organisation (WTO) – est – successor to GATT deals with rules of trade between nations deals with rules of trade between nations Goal - to help producers of goods & services, exporters & importers conduct their business Goal - to help producers of goods & services, exporters & importers conduct their business Australia plays by WTO rules Australia plays by WTO rules

14 WTO

15 The problem with trade assistance…

16 World Bank Est Est Source of financial & technical assistance to developing countries Source of financial & technical assistance to developing countries Comprised of over 180 member countries Comprised of over 180 member countries

17 IMF International Monetary Fund (IMF) est International Monetary Fund (IMF) est More than 180 members More than 180 members Promotes international monetary cooperation & exchange stability Promotes international monetary cooperation & exchange stability Provides temporary financial assistance to countries with balance of payments problems Provides temporary financial assistance to countries with balance of payments problems

18 Dissent Both the World Bank and IMF – as symbols of globalisation & capitalism – are objects for dissent and protest

19 Post-war global economic developments 1950s – postwar reconstruction 1950s – postwar reconstruction 1960s – GATT moves to freer trade 1960s – GATT moves to freer trade 1971 – end of Bretton Woods agreement 1971 – end of Bretton Woods agreement Early 1970s – oil shocks (quadruple crude oil costs) Early 1970s – oil shocks (quadruple crude oil costs) Ushers in new economic thinking in West (incl. Australia) Ushers in new economic thinking in West (incl. Australia)

20 Economic Globalisation for Australia 1901–1970s - Australia’s trade & agriculture ‘protected’ i.e. high tariffs, subsidies, quotas 1901–1970s - Australia’s trade & agriculture ‘protected’ i.e. high tariffs, subsidies, quotas Early 1970s – oil shocks (quadruple crude oil costs – ‘stagflation’) Early 1970s – oil shocks (quadruple crude oil costs – ‘stagflation’) New economic problems New economic problems require new economic require new economic thinking thinking

21 Economic Globalisation for Australia 1979 – Margaret Thatcher (UK) 1979 – Margaret Thatcher (UK) 1981 – Ronald Reagan (US) 1981 – Ronald Reagan (US) 1983 – Hawke / Keating (Aust.) 1983 – Hawke / Keating (Aust.) End of ‘Keynesian’ economics End of ‘Keynesian’ economics Rebirth of ‘supply-side’ economics Rebirth of ‘supply-side’ economics

22 Economic changes in Australia since 1980s… In theory, smaller government In theory, smaller government (in practice, still a welfare state) (in practice, still a welfare state) Lower income taxes Lower income taxes Lower public spending Lower public spending Currency deregulation (1983) Currency deregulation (1983) Deregulated labour market Deregulated labour market Reduction of tariffs Reduction of tariffs Increased foreign investment Increased foreign investment Sale of public-owned businesses e.g. Qantas, Telstra, Commonwealth Bank Sale of public-owned businesses e.g. Qantas, Telstra, Commonwealth Bank i.e. a ‘freer’ economy, BUT… i.e. a ‘freer’ economy, BUT… Some say GFC inevitable outcome of globalisation Some say GFC inevitable outcome of globalisation

23 Australia & the Global Financial Crisis Collapse of Lehmann Bros Sept. 08 Collapse of Lehmann Bros Sept. 08 Grim forecasts for Australia Grim forecasts for Australia Rudd’s anti-neo-liberal essay Rudd’s anti-neo-liberal essay Rudd Government pre-empts stalled demand: Rudd Government pre-empts stalled demand: Dec 2008 – 1 st ‘stimulus package’ = $10.4bn (lump sum payments to seniors, families; $ for auto industry, local councils) Dec 2008 – 1 st ‘stimulus package’ = $10.4bn (lump sum payments to seniors, families; $ for auto industry, local councils)

24 Australia & the Global Financial Crisis Feb 09 – 2 nd ‘stimulus package’ = $42bn (lump sum payments to most taxpayers up to $950; $26bn for infrastructure esp. schools (BER); $2.7bn for small business) Feb 09 – 2 nd ‘stimulus package’ = $42bn (lump sum payments to most taxpayers up to $950; $26bn for infrastructure esp. schools (BER); $2.7bn for small business) OECD says these packages lowered Australian unemployment by 2 % OECD says these packages lowered Australian unemployment by 2 % Similar ‘bailouts’ in UK, US & Europe Similar ‘bailouts’ in UK, US & Europe Is this the end of neo-liberalism & a new era of ‘big government’? Is this the end of neo-liberalism & a new era of ‘big government’?

25 Globalisation creates winners & losers Winners include… Highly skilled white-collar workers in finance & IT industries Highly skilled white-collar workers in finance & IT industries Losers include… Farmers, lower skilled blue- collar workers in manufacturing industries Farmers, lower skilled blue- collar workers in manufacturing industries

26 Growth in Australian Finance Industry

27 Winners & Losers…

28 Winners & Losers

29 Global winners…one analysis Recent per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of developing nations Recent per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of developing nations China: 11.1 % p.a. China: 11.1 % p.a. India: 9.7 % India: 9.7 % Philippines: 7.5 % Philippines: 7.5 % Malaysia: 5.4 % Malaysia: 5.4 % Turkey: 5.2 % Turkey: 5.2 %

30 Global losers…another analysis North-South divide grows (gap between rich & poor nations) North-South divide grows (gap between rich & poor nations) top 20 % in the world had income x 30 that of bottom 20 % top 20 % in the world had income x 30 that of bottom 20 % times times times times times times times times (some dispute this gap)

31 Global losers… The richest 1 per cent of people in the world receive as much as the bottom 57 percent The richest 1 per cent of people in the world receive as much as the bottom 57 percent i.e. < 50 million richest receive as much as 2.7 billion poor (Milanovic 2002, p.50) i.e. < 50 million richest receive as much as 2.7 billion poor (Milanovic 2002, p.50)

32 The ‘North-South Divide’ (or ‘Development Gap’)

33 The Global Income Gap Green = High; Yellow = Mid; Red = Low

34 The Global Digital Divide

35 The Energy Divide (GHGs & Climate Change challenges)

36 Anti-globalisation movements Protest at Group of Eight (G8) meetings Protest at Group of Eight (G8) meetings Anti-IMF; anti-World Bank Anti-IMF; anti-World Bank Pro-debt cancellation Pro-debt cancellation Major protests at Madrid (1994); Seattle (N ); Genoa (2001); Edinburgh (2005) Major protests at Madrid (1994); Seattle (N ); Genoa (2001); Edinburgh (2005)

37 Protests…

38 Protests…

39 Protests…

40 Australia’s trade patterns… : colonies trade with UK : colonies trade with UK : trade mostly with U.K : trade mostly with U.K present: mostly with US, Asia & EU present: mostly with US, Asia & EU

41 Australia’s trade patterns… Heavy reliance upon primary products Heavy reliance upon primary products : Agriculture : Agriculture 1950s - present: Minerals 1950s - present: Minerals 1945 – early 1970s: high international demand for Australian products esp. wool, wheat, coal; iron ore 1945 – early 1970s: high international demand for Australian products esp. wool, wheat, coal; iron ore 1980s – on: reduction in tariffs 1980s – on: reduction in tariffs

42 Tariff reduction… Until 2005: Cars - 15% tariff Until 2005: Cars - 15% tariff From 2005: Cars - 10% From 2005: Cars - 10% : TCF: 5 % to 17.5% : TCF: 5 % to 17.5%

43 Australia’s biggest trading partners… EU (incl. UK) EU (incl. UK) USA USA Japan Japan China & Hong Kong China & Hong Kong Taiwan Taiwan South Korea South Korea Singapore Singapore Malaysia Malaysia India India Thailand Thailand

44 What does Australia import? Food – $5 bn Food – $5 bn Fuels – $10 bn Fuels – $10 bn Manufactured goods – $16 bn Manufactured goods – $16 bn Machinery & vehicles – $60 bn Machinery & vehicles – $60 bn

45 What does Australia export? Food ($18 bn) Food ($18 bn) Fuels ($20 bn) Fuels ($20 bn) Manufactured goods ($11 bn) Manufactured goods ($11 bn) Machinery & vehicles ($12 bn) Machinery & vehicles ($12 bn) Trade deficits Trade deficits

46 Australia’s biggest exports… Coal Coal Tourism Tourism Iron-ore Iron-ore Education Education

47 Foreign Investment in Australia Today, about 30% foreign-owned equity in Australia Today, about 30% foreign-owned equity in Australia 1% of all firms (or 8,000) foreign- owned 1% of all firms (or 8,000) foreign- owned Employ 750,000 people Employ 750,000 people Add $78 billion to economy Add $78 billion to economy Esp. important to mining Esp. important to mining Monitored by Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB), over which Treasurer has veto power Monitored by Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB), over which Treasurer has veto power

48 Foreign Investment…

49 Current or coming Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) Australia's Free Trade Agreements Singapore - Australia Singapore - Australia Thailand - Australia Thailand - Australia Australia - United States Australia - United States Australia New Zealand Australia New Zealand Australia-Chile Australia-Chile

50 Key foreign investors… US (half of all foreign businesses) US (half of all foreign businesses) UK (make more profits than US firms) UK (make more profits than US firms) Also New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong, Germany & Japan Also New Zealand, South Africa, Hong Kong, Germany & Japan

51 Foreign Investment Arguments for: Access to capital (especially risk capital) Access to capital (especially risk capital) Provides overseas markets; infrastructure; skills; technology Provides overseas markets; infrastructure; skills; technology

52 Foreign Investment Arguments against: Outflow of dividends Outflow of dividends Displaces domestic companies form profitable sectors (much FI is merely acquisition) Displaces domestic companies form profitable sectors (much FI is merely acquisition) Does not transfer technology or skills Does not transfer technology or skills Inhibits growth of indigenous firms Inhibits growth of indigenous firms Loss of control of companies Loss of control of companies Loss of local culture Loss of local culture

53 Big Questions… Is globalisation inevitable? Is globalisation inevitable? Does globalisation ‘erode’ the sovereignty of individual nation- states? Does globalisation ‘erode’ the sovereignty of individual nation- states? Do nations have a say in how “connected” they are to the world? Do nations have a say in how “connected” they are to the world?

54 Globalisation & Sovereignty Thesis: As globalistion advances, national borders become less important As globalistion advances, national borders become less important Individual governments become less powerful Individual governments become less powerful Transnational corporations become more powerful Transnational corporations become more powerful

55 For loss of sovereignty Economy: National economies are not islands – affected by international developments National economies are not islands – affected by international developments e.g. currency exchange rates; terms of trade; FTAs, WTO, IMF, World Bank (can impose conditions e.g. Thailand in late ’90s) e.g. currency exchange rates; terms of trade; FTAs, WTO, IMF, World Bank (can impose conditions e.g. Thailand in late ’90s) Australia’s future dictated by trade blocs e.g. EU, ASEAN, NAFTA, APEC, Aust-US Australia’s future dictated by trade blocs e.g. EU, ASEAN, NAFTA, APEC, Aust-US Cannot control TNCs completely Cannot control TNCs completely

56 For loss of sovereignty

57 Politics International obligations on labour, environment & human rights (UN, ILO, Amnesty, Red Cross) International obligations on labour, environment & human rights (UN, ILO, Amnesty, Red Cross) Military Military Maintenance of defence obligations (e.g. ANZUS), Iraq, Afghanistan Maintenance of defence obligations (e.g. ANZUS), Iraq, Afghanistan Peace-keeping duties (East Timor, Solomon Islands, Bougainville) Peace-keeping duties (East Timor, Solomon Islands, Bougainville)

58 For loss of sovereignty

59 Cultural Proliferation of global media (WWW, world music, newspapers, cinema [Hollywood & ‘Bollywood’]) Proliferation of global media (WWW, world music, newspapers, cinema [Hollywood & ‘Bollywood’])Social Expenditure on social infrastructure limited by need to remain internationally competitive, especially since 1980s i.e. lower pensions etc Expenditure on social infrastructure limited by need to remain internationally competitive, especially since 1980s i.e. lower pensions etc

60 Against loss of sovereignty Nations make conscious choice to pursue free trade Nations make conscious choice to pursue free trade Control over slowing or reversing free trade (see France & US) Control over slowing or reversing free trade (see France & US) Control over TNCs at local level e.g. over investment, mergers, labour, health & safety, environmental protection Control over TNCs at local level e.g. over investment, mergers, labour, health & safety, environmental protection Control over local media ownership & content Control over local media ownership & content Control over immigration Control over immigration

61 Democracy Vs Terrorism? Does globalisation mean ‘westernisation’ (or ‘McDonaldsisation’)? Does globalisation mean ‘westernisation’ (or ‘McDonaldsisation’)? Does this mean the inevitable spread of western liberal democratic values? Does this mean the inevitable spread of western liberal democratic values? Or has globalisation (post-Cold War) helped the spread of terrorism? Or has globalisation (post-Cold War) helped the spread of terrorism?

62 Part Two Multiculturalism in Australia

63 Defining Multiculturalism A disputed, emotional term A disputed, emotional term Originated in bicultural Canada 1960s Originated in bicultural Canada 1960s “Recognition of the diverse cultures of a plural society based on three principles: 1. We all have an ethnic origin (equality) 2. All our cultures deserve respect (dignity) 3. Cultural pluralism needs official support” (Parliament of Canada 1987) i.e. cultures existing side by side (NOT a ‘melting pot’)

64 Defining Pluralism “A position in society in which political and economic power is diffused and fragmented, rather than concentrated in one class or élite group.” “A position in society in which political and economic power is diffused and fragmented, rather than concentrated in one class or élite group.” (Boyce et al 1980) (Boyce et al 1980)

65 Origins of Australian Human Settlement Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) At least 30,000 years ago, up to 120,000 years ago At least 30,000 years ago, up to 120,000 years ago Travelled on land bridge from Southeast Asia, and land bridge to Tasmania Travelled on land bridge from Southeast Asia, and land bridge to Tasmania

66 Australia and her Neighbours

67 Timeline of Attitudes to Indigenes 1788 to mid 1800s – subjugation (occasionally extermination) 1788 to mid 1800s – subjugation (occasionally extermination) Mid 1800s to mid 1960s – paternalism & assimilation Mid 1800s to mid 1960s – paternalism & assimilation 1960s-1980s – integration 1960s-1980s – integration 1990s – self-determination (ATSIC 1990; Mabo 1993) 1990s – self-determination (ATSIC 1990; Mabo 1993)

68 The Australian Settlement Australia in 1901 founded on 5 bipartisan pillars (Kelly 1992) 1. White Australia (WAP) 2. Industry Protection 3. Wage Arbitration 4. State Paternalism 5. Imperial Benevolence By 1980s, all had been slowed or reversed By 1980s, all had been slowed or reversed

69 Timeline of Australian Migration 1788 – 1840: British & Irish convicts and free settlers 1788 – 1840: British & Irish convicts and free settlers Early 1800s: indentured Chinese labourers Early 1800s: indentured Chinese labourers 1830s: German settlement in SA & Qld 1830s: German settlement in SA & Qld Mid 1800s: Italians in rural NSW & north Qld Mid 1800s: Italians in rural NSW & north Qld

70 Timeline of Australian Migration 1850s to late 1800s: Chinese to gold rushes in NSW, Victoria & Qld 1850s to late 1800s: Chinese to gold rushes in NSW, Victoria & Qld Mid to late 1800s: Kanaks in Nth Qld Mid to late 1800s: Kanaks in Nth Qld 1901: WAP introduced on Federation 1901: WAP introduced on Federation 1946 on: southern European migration (Greeks & Italians) 1946 on: southern European migration (Greeks & Italians)

71 Postwar resettlement 1945 – Australia’s population = 7 million 1945 – Australia’s population = 7 million 1940s - special report finds Australia in “urgent need” of larger population for development & self-defence (“populate or perish”) 1940s - special report finds Australia in “urgent need” of larger population for development & self-defence (“populate or perish”) Target ‘til 1972: 1% p.a. increase in population through increased immigration Target ‘til 1972: 1% p.a. increase in population through increased immigration Slows during , resumes after 1975 Slows during , resumes after 1975

72 Ben Chifley & Arthur Calwell Ben Chifley Ben Chifley Arthur Calwell Arthur Calwell

73 Migration Categories 3 main categories of migration: Economic (skill-based) Economic (skill-based) Family reunion Family reunion Humanitarian (refugees) Humanitarian (refugees)

74 Postwar resettlement United Kingdom - assisted passages (‘Ten Pound Poms’) United Kingdom - assisted passages (‘Ten Pound Poms’) Assisted migration also from Malta, The Netherlands, Italy, Greece, West Germany, Turkey, Austria, Spain, Belgium & Yugoslavia Assisted migration also from Malta, The Netherlands, Italy, Greece, West Germany, Turkey, Austria, Spain, Belgium & Yugoslavia So-called “New Australians” (a derogatory term today) So-called “New Australians” (a derogatory term today) 6.5 million people migrated to Australia since million people migrated to Australia since Australia’s population = 22.5 million Australia’s population = 22.5 million

75 Snowy Mountains Hydro- Electric Scheme 25 years to build ( ) 25 years to build ( ) Cost (at that time) of AUD$800 million (today = AUD$6 billion) Cost (at that time) of AUD$800 million (today = AUD$6 billion) 100,000 people employed from at least 30 different nationalities 100,000 people employed from at least 30 different nationalities 70% of all the workers were migrants 70% of all the workers were migrants

76 Snowy Mountains Hydro- Electric Scheme

77 Timeline of Australian Migration (con’d) 1950s – Baltic & Eastern European (anti-communist) 1950s – Baltic & Eastern European (anti-communist) Late 1950s – end to ‘Dictation Tests’ Late 1950s – end to ‘Dictation Tests’ 1966 – limited non-European migration 1966 – limited non-European migration 1973 – multiculturalism & end of WAP 1973 – multiculturalism & end of WAP

78 Timeline of Australian Migration (con’d) Mid 1970s - SBS Radio Mid 1970s - SBS Radio Late 1970s – Vietnamese migration Late 1970s – Vietnamese migration 1980s – Mainland Chinese 1980s – Mainland Chinese Early 1980s – SBS TV Early 1980s – SBS TV 1988 – John Howard (PM ) expresses concerns over Asian migration 1988 – John Howard (PM ) expresses concerns over Asian migration 2000s – African (sub-Saharan) 2000s – African (sub-Saharan) Net overseas migration: = 30,042; = 177,600 Net overseas migration: = 30,042; = 177, – Rudd Gov’t cuts ‘permanent skilled migration program’ intake from 133,500 to 115, – Rudd Gov’t cuts ‘permanent skilled migration program’ intake from 133,500 to 115,000. Population now a political issue! Population now a political issue!

79 Prime Minister Hawke Hawke’s (1989) three dimensions of Multiculturalism policy: Cultural identity Cultural identity Social justice Social justice Economic efficacy Economic efficacy

80 Xenophobia: Fear of Foreigners Fears of job losses (economic sustainability) Fears of job losses (economic sustainability) Fears of urban decay (infrastructural sustainability) Fears of urban decay (infrastructural sustainability) Fears of water shortage (ecological sustainability) Fears of water shortage (ecological sustainability) Fears of lost Australian identity (cultural sustainability) Fears of lost Australian identity (cultural sustainability)

81 Political backlash 1997: xenophobia exploited by Pauline Hanson & One Nation Party 1997: xenophobia exploited by Pauline Hanson & One Nation Party 1998: Qld state election = 22.7 % vote 1998: Qld state election = 22.7 % vote Declines by 2001 Declines by 2001 Liberal-National Gov’t assumes tough line on immigration as a result Liberal-National Gov’t assumes tough line on immigration as a result Labor also adopts tough rhetoric) Labor also adopts tough rhetoric)

82 A New PM

83 A New Xenophobia? Late 2001 – MV Tampa, SIEV IV & 2001 federal election Late 2001 – MV Tampa, SIEV IV & 2001 federal election “Pacific Solution” (Nauru) “Pacific Solution” (Nauru) “We will decide who comes to this country, and the circumstances under which they come.” (PM John Howard 2001 election campaign) “We will decide who comes to this country, and the circumstances under which they come.” (PM John Howard 2001 election campaign)

84 SIEV IV – 6 October, 2001

85 A New Xenophobia? Post 9/11 & post-Bali bombing (2002) antagonism against Muslim extremists Post 9/11 & post-Bali bombing (2002) antagonism against Muslim extremists Cronulla riots (Christmas 2005) Cronulla riots (Christmas 2005) New PM Julia Gilard does not support a ‘big’ Australia New PM Julia Gilard does not support a ‘big’ Australia

86 Summary & Conclusions Globalisation is ‘international inter- connectedness’ Globalisation is ‘international inter- connectedness’ Australia in past 60 years has changed politically, economically, socially and culturally Australia in past 60 years has changed politically, economically, socially and culturally Australia was once a protected economy; since 1980s an open economy Australia was once a protected economy; since 1980s an open economy Australia until 1950s almost totally British Australia until 1950s almost totally British Since 1950s, non-British migration changed the face of Australia Since 1950s, non-British migration changed the face of Australia Immigration and globalisation will continue for Australia Immigration and globalisation will continue for Australia


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