Presentation on theme: "Power, Ideology, Censorship, and Translation Francesca Billiani."— Presentation transcript:
Power, Ideology, Censorship, and Translation Francesca Billiani
Aims What is censorship? How does censorship work? Key factors: Power structures and ideology. Examples from different media and national contexts. Role of the translator: the case of self- censorship.
WHAT IS CENSORSHIP? “Censorship may be either preventive or punitive, according to whether it is exercised before or after the expression has been made public” It exercise power over the transmission of a certain message It usually occurs in an heavily ideologically loaded context
Power structure Self-censorship Institutional censorship Market strategies Cultural conventions Aesthetic conventions Social conventions Cultural spaces between familiar and alien
Ideology Censorship usually operates in an ideologically loaded context; however the assumption must be that Ideology is not simply a ‘false consciousness’, an illusory representation of reality, it is reality itself; ‘ideological is not the ‘false consciousness of a social being but this being in so far as it is supported by ‘false consciousness’.
Communicative System “translation can no longer be analyzed in isolation, but…should be studied as part of a whole system of texts and the people who produce, support, propagate, oppose, censor them” (Lefevere in Hermans 1999:44)
Fascist Italy Preventive censorship: the publisher had to guarantee that in the text there were no references to: abortion, suicide, and that if there was a criminal he could not be Italian Aesthetic and stylistic purposes depending on the literary environment. The example of the anthology Americana: use of paratexts to escape censorship.
Pavese translates Lewis He jogged down Twenty-third Street to the North River ferries afoot.[…] Over him the April clouds were fetterless vagabonds […] And with them Mr Wrenn’s soul swept along, while his half-soled Cum-Fee-Best shoes were ambling past warehouses. Only once did he condescend to being really on Twenty-third Street. At the Ninth Avenue corner, under the grimy Elevated
Bighellonò a piedi giù per la Ventitreesima Via verso I ferry-boats del Fiume Nord. [..] Sul capo le nuvole d’aprile eran liberi viandanti. […] E con esse l’anima del signor Wrenn spaziava mentre le sue scarpe Cum-Fee-Best a mezza suola passavano accanto ai magazzini. Soltanto una volta egli condiscese a trovarsi veramente nella Ventitreesima Via. All’Angolo del Nono Corso, sotto la sudicia Aerea.
Spanish Cinema During the Franco Regime Sabrina’s 1955 dubbing allows us to take a glance at early Francoist film manipulations. The 1964 dubbings of Stalag 17 and The Seven Year Itch, typical products of the Regime’s post-1963 cultural politics, illustrate how important a player Billy Wilder was in the process of Spain’s timid cultural opening (apertura) around 1963.
Democracy can be a wickedly unfair thing, Sabrina. Nobody poor was ever called democratic for marrying somebody rich. La democracia suele ser injusta en sus apreciaciones, Sabrina… Los demócratas… no consideran como tal al pobre que se casa con un rico. Democracy is usually unfair in its interpretations, Sabrina… Democrats… don’t consider the poor as such [=democratic] when they marry the rich.
LARRABEE Sr.: I only hope you remember what to do with a girl... LINUS: It’ll come back to me, it’s like riding a bicycle. LARRABEE Sr.: Supongo que no habrás olvidado como se conquista a una chica. LINUS: Ya lo recordaré… Es como volver a tocar el piano. LARRABEE Sr.: I guess you haven’t forgotten how to win a girl’s heart. LINUS: I’ll remember… It’s like playing the piano again.
- Oh! You feel the breeze of the subway? Isn’t it delicious? - (horny look) It sort of cools the ankles, doesn’t it? - ¡Oh! ¿Nota la brisa del metro? ¡Oh!, ¡qué sensación! - (voz en off) Refresca los tobillos, ¿verdad? - Oh! Do you [polite] feel the breeze of the subway? Oh! What a nice feeling. - It cools the ankles, doesn’t it?
- Nurse: You bother me. You’ve bothered me from the moment they wheeled you into that operating room. I can’t understand it – there’s a kind of animal thing about you. […] - […] (He hits her in the face) - Nurse: Beat me! Hit me! Beat me till your arms ache. You know I’ll only come crawling back for more. - Me confundes. Me has desconcertado desde el primer momento en el que entraste en el quirófano. No llego a entenderlo. Hay en ti una atracción brutal. [...] (He hits her in the face)
Pégame, maltrátame, flagélame hasta que se te rompan los brazos. Yo seguiré arrastrándome de rodillas en tu busca. - You confuse me… There’s an amazing attraction in you. - Beat me, batter me, flagellate me until you break your arms. I’ll come back crawling on my knees, looking for you.
Drama in the U.K. If censorship is a technique by which discursive practices are maintained, and if social life largely consists of such practices, it follows that censorship is the norm rather than the exception. Censorship materializes everywhere
Manuela: Well, in the first place it’s not well bred. Father says to me: “Never show your feelings. It’s not even decent”. Oda: Is that so – well then, you must have indecent feelings. Manuela: I? Indecent feelings? (Winsloe 1932:32; original emphasis).
Head: […] and cried out your sinfulness before them all (Winsloe 1932:7). Fraülein [sic] v. Bernburg: (Painfully) You must not love me so much, It is wrong, it is harmful – it is a sin (Winsloe 1932:30). Head: […] When that depraved little girl cried out her sin and perversity (Winsloe 1932:36).
[…] the child becomes passionately devoted to the teacher, the affection is undoubtedly unhealthy but there is nothing to suggest it is unclean and such a feeling is by no means uncommon between a young girl and a kind teacher […] (Buckmaster, cited by Shellard & Nicholson 2004:114)