Presentation on theme: "GV505-week 4 1. Group level of Analysis/Institutional Factors 2. State/Structural Factors."— Presentation transcript:
GV505-week 4 1. Group level of Analysis/Institutional Factors 2. State/Structural Factors
Group level of analysis Identification with a group Social and ethnic groups Aggression among groups: conflict as a social construct
Group Level Causes of Conflict Robbers’ Cave experiment The role of territory The role of common danger “In-group” vs. “out-group” Socio-psychological arguments Enemy System Theory: “Us” vs. “Them” Social Identity Theory: social mobilization and identification with groups Decision Making Theories Structural arguments Relative Deprivation and Expectations’ Gap Human Needs Theory Power Structure
Conflict at the State level/International System Structures Define State and Types of States Realism and power Definition of power
Strong, Weak, and Failed States How do we define state sovereignty? Is sovereignty is a state’s right or privilege? Differences between Developed (North) and Third World/Developing/ South states Strong state: Autonomy and Capacity Weak state: Difficulties satisfying the needs of citizens Failed state: domestic anarchy and the role of ethnic and tribal groups
Example of failed State: Somalia Official name: Soomaaliya (Somali)(Somalia). Form of government: no permanent national government Head of state and government: No effective central government exists. Population projection: (2000) 7,434,000 Life expectancy: 47 yrs. GDP (1996)(110 per capita). GDP (2001) $550 per capita.
Democratic Republic of the Congo Form of government: dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government Head of state and government: President Joseph KABILA (since 26 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father and 4 armies. Population: 55 mil Life Expectancy: 49 yrs and keep dropping due to Aids. GDP growth rate: -5% GDP (2001) $590 per capita.
“…Nay, number itself in armies importeth not much, where people is of weak courage; for as Virgil saith: “It never troubles a wolf how many the sheep be.” Francis Bacon Assumptions of realism State centered international system, principle sovereignty Rational, unitary actor Anarchic or loosely hierarchical international system Historical roots of realism Main focus of studying: Power relations among states State behavior: maximize security and/or power
Defining Power Power as influence Power as capability Relativity of power Can we estimate power? Difference between “capabilities” and “power” Political Technology Reputation Regime Type RPC Geography, Resources, and Economics Military
Boulding’s three faces of power Threat power Deterrence State authority over citizens Economic power Integrative power Legitimacy, persuasion, loyalty All three faces of power are necessary: Why? Examples: Soviet Union, Germany during WWII, British empire