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The Hohenzollernruled Prussia;

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1 The Hohenzollernruled Prussia;
CENTRAL EUROPE IN 1770 The Hohenzollernruled Prussia; the Habsburgs ruled Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Lombardy, & Belgium Europe in 1763, at the end of the Seven Years' War. SOURCE: Hammond, _World History Atlas_, revised edition (Maplewood, New Jersey, 1987), H-27.

2 “The Flute Concert of Frederick the Great at Sans Souci” King Frederick II, “the Great,” ruled from 1740 to 1786 Flötenkonzert Friedrichs des Großen in Sanssouci oder: Das Flötenkonzert / Flötenkonzert Friedrichs des Großen in Sanssouci Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann, Maler Bild, Tafelmalerei Öl auf Leinwand 142 x 205 cm

3 Frederick the Great at the Battle of Hochkirch, 1760 (Painting by Adolph von Menzel, 1856)
Friedrich II. und die Seinen bei Hochkirch oder: Schlacht bei Hochkirch Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann, Maler 1856 Bild, Tafelmalerei Öl auf Leinwand; 295 x 378 cm Signatur & Datierung: Adolph Menzel. Berlin 1856, Anbringungsort: links unten Verbleib: Confiscated by the Russians in 1945, now lost Tagebucheintragung bei Hans Möhle, Kupferstichkabinett, vom : "Menzels 'Schlacht bei Hochkirch' an den russischen Kommandanten ausgeliefert durch Frau Dr. Behrsing". Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin, Katalog

PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIAL STRUCTURE: The Three French Estates of Clergy, Nobility, and Commoners—had become secularized in Germany after the Reformation NOBLES 2-3% East-Elbian Junkers manage knightly estates; western seigneurs collect local taxes BURGHERS 20-30% Ca. 5% in cities with over 20,000 people, based on long-distance trade, dominated by patrician merchants Ca. 20% in small towns with under 20,000 people, based on local trade, dominated by artisanal guilds PEASANTS 70-80% Serfdom prevails east of the Elbe; perhaps half of western peasants own enough land to support their families.

COUNTRY 1700 1750 1800 1850 Europe 115.0 140.0 187.0 266.0 Germany (1914 borders) 16.0 18.0 24.0 31.0 Prussia 5.1 6.4 9.0 Austrian Empire (born in 1806) -- 23.0 30.7

6 Germany experienced a crisis of over-population by the 1790s
Serfdom still prevailed east of the Elbe River In artisanal guilds, more and more journeymen never became masters Pauperism spread in the countryside European population density in 1600. SOURCE:

: Outbreak of French Revolution widely applauded by German intellectuals 1792: Austria and Prussia invade France but are stopped at Valmy. 1793/94: French Reign of Terror : Prussia reverts to neutrality as France conquers the Rhineland and Italy 1805: Napoleon conquers Austria 1806/07: Napoleon conquers Prussia and reorganizes Germany in alliance with Bavaria, Baden, & Saxony 1812/13: Napoleon’s defeat in Russia sparks the German “War of Liberation” .

8 Largely untrained French volunteers defeated the invaders: “Kellerman at Valmy,” September 20, 1792
Anonymous, "Kellerman at Valmy," 20 September This contemporary print depicts the stratagem adopted by one French general to encourage his raw recruits at the battle which turned back the Austro-Prussian invasion. SOURCE: Jean Tulard, _The French Revolution in Paris, Seen through the Collections of the Carnavalet Museum_ (Paris, 1989), p. 126.

9 The French Convention, “Decree Proclaiming the Liberty and Sovereignty of All Peoples,” December 1792 “The National Convention, faithful to the principles of the sovereignty of the people, which do not permit it to recognize any of the institutions which bring an attack upon it, decrees:” “In the countries which are or shall be occupied by the armies of the Republic, the generals shall proclaim immediately, in the name of the French nation, the sovereignty of the people, the suppression of all the established authorities and existing imposts and taxes, the abolition of the tithe, of feudalism, of seigneurial rights, or real and personal servitude, of the privileges of hunting and fishing, of corvées, of nobility, and generally of all privileges.” “They shall announce to the people that they bring them peace, assistance, fraternity, liberty, and equality, and that they will convoke them directly in primary or communal assemblies, in order to create and organize an administration and a provisional judiciary.” “There shall be made a list of the expenses which the French Republic shall have incurred for the common defense, and the French nation shall make arrangements with the government which shall have been established for that which may be due.” Source:  Thomas C. Mendenhall, et. al., Quest for a Principle of Authority in Europe, 1715 to Present (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1948), pp

10 The foreign invasions and counter-revolutionary uprisings of 1793/94
Revolution, invasion, and counter-revolution in France, SOURCE: Patrick O'Brien, ed., OOXFORD ATLAS OF WORLD HISTORY_, rev. edn. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p.166.

11 Thermidorean Art Napoleon took power in 1799 and exploited Prussia’s neutrality to invade Italy: “Napoleon at the St. Bernard Pass” (1801) DAVID, Jacques-Louis (b. 1748, Paris, d. 1825, Bruxelles) Napoleon at the St. Bernard Pass 1801 Oil on canvas, 246 x 231 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna SOURCE: David and his studio executed four versions of this painting, differing only slightly in the color of the mantle.

12 Europe after the Peace of Amiens (1802/03)
Thermidorean Art Europe after the Peace of Amiens (1802/03) From Hammond's HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD, rev. edn (Maplewood, NJ, 1987), H-30.

13 Thermidorean Art Prussia remained neutral when Napoleon conquered Austria in 1805: “The Battle of Austerlitz, 2 December 1805” François GERARD, "The Battle of Austerlitz, 2 December 1805" (oil on canvas painted in 1810; now in the Chateau de Versailles). SOURCE: Gérard depicts the triumphant end of the battle, as an excited General Rapp brings to Napoleon the flags and cannon captured from the Austrians and Russians, along with many distinguished Russian prisoners. Napoleon rides his white horse Cyrus, renamed "Austerlitz" after this battle. Napoleon is surrounded by Generals Berthier, Bessières, and Junot, and the cavalry colonel Lebrun. As with many depictions of him on the field of battle, Napoleon remains impassive while the characters around him express a variety of powerful emotions.

14 Prussia then suffered devastating defeats at Jena and Auerstedt in 1806
The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleon sought to build up the territory of his allies, Baden, Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, and Saxony, at the expense of Prussia, Austria, Hanover, and the splinter states of the Holy Roman Empire. SOURCE: Hermann Kinder and Werner Hilgemann, eds., _dtv-Atlas zur Weltgeschichte_ (Munich, 1966), II:28.

15 Napoleon’s Entry into Berlin through the Brandenburg Gate, 1806: Most Berliners appeared to admire their conqueror Napoleon's entry into Berlin through the Brandenburg Gate in From Wolfgang Venohr, NAPOLEON IN DEUTSCHLAND, 2nd edn (Munich, 1998), p. 131.

16 Napoleon meets Tsar Alexander I at Tilsit, June 1807: Russia agreed to join the “Continental System”
Adolphe ROEHN, "The Meeting of Napoleon I and Alexander I on the Niemen, 25 June 1807" (painted in 1807; now in the Chateau de Versailles). SOURCE:

17 Nicolas Gosse, “Napoleon Receives the Prussian Queen Luise in Tilsit,” 6 July (painted in 1837): Here King Frederick William III is reduced to the role of onlooker Painting by Nicolas Gosse (detail), "Napoleon Receives the Prussian Queen Luise in Tilsit," on 6 July 1807 (painted in 1837). The Queen's husband, King Fredrick William III, is reduced to the role of onlooker in this encounter and was widely considered less courageous and less concerned for his people's welfare than was his wife. SOURCE: Werner Conze and Volker Hentschel, eds, PLOETZ DEUTSCHE GESCHICHTE, 2nd edn (Wuerzburg, 1979), p. 185.

18 Europe in 1812 Thermidorean Art
From Hammond's HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD, rev. edn (Maplewood, NJ, 1987), H-31.

19 Much of Germany now adopted French law and institutions
The Wedding of Prince Jerome Bonaparte and Princess Frédérique Catherine of Württemberg, 1807: Jerome now became “King of Westphalia” Jean-Baptiste REGNAULT, "The Wedding of Prince Jérôme Bonaparte and Princess Frédérique Catherine of Wuerttemberg" (wedding in 1807; painting finished in 1810; now in the Château de Versailles). SOURCE: Napoleon's brother Jerome was the new King of Westphalia, a kingdom created by Napoleon largely out of Prussia's former holdings on the right bank of the Rhine. The Kingdom of Westphalia was the largest state in the new Confederation of the Rhine, and the second largest was Wuerttemberg, which Napoleon had promoted to the rank of a kingdom and allowed to annex dozens of the small autonomous territories of the old Holy Roman Empire in southwestern Germany. This marriage cemented an alliance designed to protect France against any threat of invasion across the Rhine. Here the bride and groom receive the blessings of Napoleon and the Empress Josephine in the Tuileries Palace in Paris, just before signing their marriage contract. Between the brothers their mother can be seen, and they are flanked by Napoleon's other siblings and their spouses, several generals, and Cardinal Fesch. Much of Germany now adopted French law and institutions

20 Baron Karl vom Stein (1757-1831), Chancellor of Prussia, 1806/07
Portrait of Karl vom Stein

Abolition of serfdom (but the lords get most of the land) Municipal self-government (but with 3-class suffrage) Educational reform: careers open to talent (Wilhelm von Humboldt promotes the Gymnasium to foster a classical humanist education) Military reform: careers open to talent (Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Clausewitz) The Austrian government insisted, however, that any concession to the principles of revolutionary France would destroy the foundations of stable government and international peace; it expanded the police instead.

22 Johann Gottlieb Fichte delivered his “Addresses to the German Nation” in Berlin in the winter of 1807/08 *** “The German speaks a language which has been alive ever since it first issued from the force of nature, whereas the other Teutonic races [e.g., Franks] speak a language which has movement on the surface only but is dead at the root.” *** “Only the German... really has ein Volk…, and he alone is capable of real and rational love for his nation.” *** “The divine has appeared in das Volk…. Hence, the noble-minded man will... sacrifice himself for his people…. In order to save his nation he must be ready even to die that it may live.” [“Das Volk” could be translated as “nation”, “people”, or “race”.] Johann Gottlieb Fichte ( ), who delivered his "Addresses to the German Nation" in Berlin in the winter of 1807/08 and then played a leading role in the reorganization of the University of Berlin. SOURCE:

23 “Napoleon Exhorts the Bavarian and Württemberger Troops at Abensberg,” 1809
Jean-Baptiste DEBRET, "Napoleon Exhorts the Bavarian and Wuerttemberger Troops at Abensberg" in 1809 (painted in 1810; now in the Château de Versailles). SOURCE: At the end of the year 1805 Napoleon undertook a thorough reorganization of Germany, replacing the old Holy Roman Empire with the new Confederation of the Rhine. The major winners in this transformation were the newly elevated kingdoms of Bavaria and Wuerttemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the entirely new Kingdom of Westphalia, all of which signed offensive and defensive military alliances with France and pledged to provide regular troop contingents for the Grand Army. These German troops contingents were required to swear oaths of allegiance to the Emperor Napoleon, and they served him faithfully in the war of 1809 against Austria and the invasion of Russia in Here we see the Crown Prince of Bavaria (on horseback) as he turns around to translate Napoleon's inspirational remarks into German.

24 The Destruction of the Grande Armée in Russia in 1812
Napoleon's debacle in Russia in 1812. SOURCE:

25 General Yorck von Wartenburg Addresses the Provincial Estates of East Prussia, 5 February 1813
werden die Intentionen der preußischen Reformer unterstützt, die, auch ohne Mitwirkung des Königs, auf eine Volkserhebung gegen Napoleon zielen.

26 Students of the University of Jena march off with the Lützow Free Corps in 1813 (painted in 1909)
Ferdinand Hodler, "Auszug der Jenenser Studenten in den Freiheitskrieg 1813" (1908/09). Oil on canvas; 358 × 546 cm; Aula der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena. After first successes in Paris and Vienna, the Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler, became more and more popular in Germany as well and received significant orders. The "Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde in Jena und Weimar" ("Society of Friends of Fine Arts in Jena and Weimar") placed an order for an anniversary gift for the Jena University in A wall painting was required to show the march of Jena students into the “Wars of Liberation” in Hodler showed the students in the black uniforms of "Lützowsches Freikorps", the voluntary corps organized and commanded by Baron of Lützow. The size of that unit averaged 3,500 troops, and it was the only unit made up of troops from many different German states, many of them students and intellectuals. This painting was installed in the Aula of Jena University in 1909. Source The Yorck Project: Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, ISBN Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH

27 “The East Prussian Landwehr Takes the Field in 1813” (the Prussian army swelled from 42,000 to 280,000 men in 1813) In theory, these units imitated the “demo-cratic” principles of the French National Guard. “Auszug der ostpreußischen Landwehr 1813 ins Feld” (oil painting by Gustav Graef, 1860).

28 Eleonore Prohaska, “Potsdam’s Joan of Arc,” mortally wounded in September 1813
Eleonore Prohaska was the daughter of a sergeant in the Prussian army reared on patriotic values, who volunteered herself for army service with the Luetzow Free Corps at the age of 28, assuming the name August Renz. In a small but furious battle on the eve of the Battle of Leipzig, she picked up the regimental drum from a fallen comrade, rallied the troops, and led them on a charge to capture the French artillery, but was mortally wounded in the process. This contemporary print depicts the moment when her commanding officer discovers that she is a woman. As we will see later in the semester, women who challenged conventional gender roles later in the 19th century were subjected to vicious scorn and ridicule, but in the atmosphere of 1813 she was celebrated as a national heroine and buried with full military honors, with many high Prussian dignitaries in attendance. Eleven other women are known to have fought with the Prussian army in this campaign.

29 The “Battle of the Nations,” Leipzig, October 16-10, 1813
In the most gigantic battle of the Napoleonic Wars, 500,000 Prussian, Austrian, and Russian troops converged on 350,000 French troops holding the largest city of Saxony in October 1813 and inflicted a crushing defeat on Napoleon in four days of heavy fighting. SOURCE:

30 Europe following the Congress of Vienna in 1815
SOURCE: Hammond's HISTORICAL ATLAS OF THE WORLD, rev. edn (Maplewood, NJ, 1987), H-32.

31 The Congress of Vienna, 1815: Wellington, Hardenberg (seated), Metternich (standing), Castlereagh, & Talleyrand The Vienna Congress, 1815; a group portrait of the 23 principal actors by the Parisian court painter Jean Baptiste Isabey ( ); from On the left side of the portrait, Austrian Chancellor Metternich gestures toward the British Foreign Secretary, Viscount Robert Castlereagh (seated). Across from him sits Prussian Chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg (lower left corner). England's Duke of Wellington stands behind Hardenberg. On the right side of the portrait, the French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord rests his right arm on the table. Wilhlem von Humboldt stands second from the left. Count Rasoumoffsky, the representative of Czar Alexander I of Russia, appears near the middle of the portrait; he stands before the lower left corner of the large portrait on the wall. This etching dates from 1819 and is based on Isabey's painting of 1815.

FRANCE: Restore the Bourbon Dynasty, but with a “Charter of Liberty” ITALY: Build up the “Kingdom of Sardinia” as a barrier to French expansion PRUSSIA: Loses half its Polish holdings, gains 2/5 of Saxony and Rhineland-Westphalia GERMANY: The German Confederation replaces the Holy Roman Empire Ignore any claim to “national self-determination” in favor of “dynastic legitimacy” and the “balance of power.” After 1815 the “Concert of Europe” claimed the right to intervene in any country that experienced revolution.

Map of the German Confederation of 1815. SOURCE: Martin Kitchen, _The Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 163.

34 Prince Metternich ( ): He advocated the “Concert of Europe” and annual congresses of the Great Powers Clemens Prince von Metternich ( ), Austrian minister and chancellor, shown here as the suave aristocrat, was the leading figure in the conservative restoration of Europe after Napoleon's fall in 1815; he remained the dominant statesman in the German territories until Portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, c SOURCE:

35 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Medieval City on a River (ca. 1815)
Karl Friedrich Schinkel, "Medieval City on a River." Oil on canvas Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. Schinkel's canvas features an impressive German cathedral and medieval town with the approaching forces of a victorious German prince. Painted in 1815 after Prussia's contribution to the victory over Napoleon, "Medieval City on a River" fused old German triumphs with the recent one and gave expression to the spirit of national beginnings that inspired German artists of that time.

36 The Wartburg Festival, October 1817: The Burschenschaften meet to support German unity
A procession of students approaches the Wartburg castle, located near Eisenach in Thuringia (October 18, 1817). The Wartburg Festival commemorated the 300th anniversary of the beginning of the Reformation and the fourth anniversary of the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig. A place of refuge for Martin Luther in , the Wartburg served as a symbol of German nationalism. Contemporary colored engraving. SOURCE:

37 The Murder of August Kotzebue by Carl Sand, Mannheim, March 1819
In the city of Mannheim, a young student named Carl Sand rang the doorbell of Germany’s most popular playwright on the afternoon of March 23, The man of the house greeted the stranger in a friendly manner, but Sand pulled a dagger from his sleeve, yelled “You traitor to the Fatherland!”, and stabbed him three times. As Kotzebue collapsed, mortally wounded, Sand attempted to flee the house; when his escape was cut off, he then attempted to kill himself. He was arrested, nursed back to health, tried, and then sentenced to death for what might be considered the first act of political terrorism in Germany. Public outrage over this deed helped Metternich to persuade all member states of the German Confederation to issue the notorious Carlsbad Decrees, which abolished freedom of the press and academic freedom.

A police inspector will be appointed for each university. All university & school teachers will be fired if they “propagate doctrines subversive of existing government institutions.” The Universal Students’ Union (Allgemeine Burschenschaft) will be suppressed, “since the very conception of the society implies the utterly unallowable plan of permanent fellowship and constant communication between the various universities.” No periodical or daily newspaper will go to press “without the previous knowledge and approval of the state officials.” Each German state is responsible to all the other states “for every publication appearing under its supervision in which the honor or security of other states is infringed or their constitution or administration attacked.” SOURCE:

39 Meeting of the Thinkers’ Club (cartoon, ca
Meeting of the Thinkers’ Club (cartoon, ca. 1825) “The important question to be discussed in today’s meeting: How long will we be allowed to go on thinking?” "Meeting of the Thinkers' Club," cartoon on the suppression of freedom of speech, ca. 1825: "The important question that will be considered in the meeting today: how long will we be allowed to go on thinking?“ On the wall behind the table hang the new “Laws of the Thinkers’ Club,” which state that keeping silent is the highest duty of club members, and that no member will be permitted to let his tongue wag freely.

40 Jean-Baptiste Regnault, “Liberty or Death!” (1794).
A painting by a die-hard Jacobin who upheld their ideals even after Thermidor. The original motto of the constitution written by the Convention in 1793 was “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity – Or Death!” That slogan is ambiguous, but this painting is frankly aggressive. The Genius of France offers the entire world a choice: Either embrace republican principles or die! SOURCE:

41 Anonymous, “Robespierre, guillotining the executioner after having guillotined all the French.” In April-June 1794 Robespierre conducted such broad purges that most Convention delegates came to fear they might be next. This undated engraving (probably from 1794) is in the Carnavalet Museum (from Simon Schama, p. 850). The tomb on the background bears the inscription, “Here lies all of France.”

42 THE REVOLUTION DEVOURS ITS CHILDREN: Danton riding to the scaffold, April 1794; Robespierre, July 1794 J.-B. Wille, drawing of Danton, with his hands tied, on the way to the guillotine, 5 April SOURCE: Simon Schama, _Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution_ (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989), p "Robespierre on the Day of his Execution" (drawing attributed to Jacques-Louis David). SOURCE: Alan Wintermute, ed., _1789: French Art During the Revolution_ (New York: Colnaghi Gallery, 1989), p. 147.

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