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Vietējās pārtikas sistēmas un lauksaimniecības un lauku ilgtspēja Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas Ligita Melece, Dr.

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Presentation on theme: "Vietējās pārtikas sistēmas un lauksaimniecības un lauku ilgtspēja Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas Ligita Melece, Dr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vietējās pārtikas sistēmas un lauksaimniecības un lauku ilgtspēja Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas Ligita Melece, Dr. oec. Latvijas Valsts Agrārās ekonomikas institūta nod. vad., vadošā pētniece Vidzemes augstskolas docente Head of Department of Quality and Environment Protection, Latvian State Institute of Agrarian Economics Assoc. Prof. of University of Applied Sciences Konference „Mārketings un investīcijas” 2012. gada 22. marts Jūrmala

2 Content food systems and local or alternative food systems; changes and opportunities of agricultural and agrifood sector and rural areas; role and development opportunities of local food systems.

3 Food System C oncept of «Food System» is used to describe following complex and interrelated activities: agricultural and food production; processing; marketing; consumption; waste utilization and disposal activities.

4 Food System or Food Chain or Network

5 Local Food System Local Food System; Local Food Chain; Alternative Food System; Alternative Food Networks; Alternative Agricultural and Food System or Alternative Agrifood Network, that incorporate: organic food; local food; regional food; alternative food. Source: Goodman D., Goodman M., 2007; Maxey L., 2007; Scrinis G., 2007

6 Avots: adaptēts no Hinrichs C. C., 2003

7 Changes of Agricultural Producing and Rural Environment Causes: New technologies; Intensification; Increase of farm area; Desertification and soil degradation (loss of soil fertility); Urbanization process in Europe (75% of people live in cities; will be 80% untill 2020); Globalization of agribusiness and food system and the impact of large corporations; Economic and financial crisis; Demographic and social crisis in the developed countries. Consequences: Cuts of employment in agricultural sector; Decreasing farm numbers, particularly small; Aging and declination of rural population; Outflow of labor force; Income reduction. Possibilities: RDP- environmental measures; Development of new branches and types of business; Rural environment as living space for employees of creative and other sectors and pensioners; etc.

8 The aspects of local (regional) food Economical - the local economy, farms, residents; Social - employment, strengthening of local community (communities), improving the demographic situation, etc.; Cultural - cultural and national heritage, crafts, cultural landscape, rural landscape, etc.; Environmental - shorter food chains, environment and natural resources, sustainable farming, including organic; Food self-sufficiency in national level.

9 The Effect / impact of Globalisation and Concentration Local food systems can help to secure a fair income for farmers and restore the balance of powers in the food supply chain. Gglobalization and increased concentration of food distribution have led to a gap between rises: in production costs (3.6 % a year since 1996); in consumer prices (3.3 % a year); and in prices for farmers (2.1 % a year). Necessary to create systems that improve the negotiation powers of farmers, such as short distribution circuits. Source: Dwarshuis- van de Beek L., 2011

10 Two Directions of Food Production The first is food production in midle and large-scale enterprises (industrialization and efficient production) mainly for international and regional (EU, former USSR countries, etc.) markets. To ensure this type of production, companies need to implement the following measures: industrialization; consolidation and modernization; increase of competitiveness and innovation; focus on regional and global markets; quality (ISO 9000, ISO 22 000) and environmental (ISO 14001, EMAS), control systems; use of food quality brands.

11 Two Directions of Food Production The second direction for further development of the food sector is food production on farms, small and micro-scale enterprises, that comply with principles of sustainable and environmentally friendly food chain and produce value-added food products mainly for the local market. The main conditions for such food production are: local and artisan (individually) produced food, including organic; organic food and market development; local food markets and distribution; culinary tourism; “Slow Food“ movement; voluntary quality schemes.

12 Trends of Local Food in Europe and Worldwide Food Miles A consumer report published in 2003 by The Guardian newspaper in the UK found that a selection of 20 fresh food items purchased from British supermarkets had travelled an average of 5,000 miles each; in North America, an average fresh food transport distance of 1,000-1,500 miles is often cited. Food Quality The taste qualities of local food are better because of products are fresh and ripe, and not chemically treated for transportation and storage. Sustainable agro-industrial development Higher demand for locally produced food increase the diversification of farming and helps to maintain soil fertility and biodiversity. The local economy Strengthening the local economy, providing work for small farmers, creating or saving workplaces, preserving small shops and securing food.

13 Trends of Local Food in Europe and worldwide Local or regional food (EU initiative to create logo and distribution limitations 30-50 km); Craftsmen or artisan food and specialty food; Movement of Farmer market. Year 2009 70 cheese producers in Ireland 100 cheese producers in Holland 2000 specialty food producers in New Zealand Every £10 spent at a local food business = worth £25 to the local area Every £10 spent at a supermarket = just £14 to the local area Source: Halweil B., 2002

14 Types of the Short Food Chains Source : Renting H. et al., 2003

15 Community Supported Local Food System Farmers markets; Farm stands – in farms, roadsides etc. places (with coffee drinking and eating places); Restaurants and cafeteries (supply); Institutions and companies (schools, hospitals, working places, nursing homes etc.) Agro tourism; Weekly food boxes (seasonal); Pick-up-own-farms; Cooperative or local government shops; E-commerce.

16 Farmers Market - Prague

17 Farmers Markets – Zurich Train Station

18 Artisan or Speciality Food in Ireland Rural Tourism & Artisan Food: Know the Opportunities Artisan / Speciality Food Source: Artisan food: unique; traditional; individual; superior taste; masterfully prepared / produced (craft) – artisan item. 70 producers Speciality food: product of higher quality; premium pricing; unique; regional; wider application than artisan food. 320 producers, 3,000 workers; 0.5 billion EUR value

19 Artisan Food “Artisan” is a term used to describe food produced by non-industrialized methods, often handed down through generations but now in danger of being lost. Tastes and processes, such as fermentation, are allowed to develop slowly and naturally, rather than curtailed for mass-production. There is no single definition of artisan food, but artisan producers: should understand and respect the raw materials with which they work; they should know where these materials come from and what is particularly good about them; should have mastered the craft of their particular production and have a historical, experiential, intuitive and scientific understanding of what makes the process that they are engaged in successful; should know what tastes good and be sensitive to the impact of their production on people and the environment; get better over time and probably never stop improving or tweaking their practice, learning from other people and their own mistakes. Source:

20 The first European Declaration on Food Sovereignty (DECLARATION OF NYÉLÉNI) Declaration on Food Sovereignty (DECLARATION OF NYÉLÉNI) 27 February 2007 Nyéléni Village, Sélingué, Mali Declaration of the Forum for Food Sovereignty, Nyéléni 2007 Over 500 delegates from 80 countries committed declaration to expanding and consolidating a strong European movement for Food Sovereignty. Six basic pillars principls of Declaration on Food Sovereignty include: 1. Focuses on Food for People. 2. Values Food Providers. 3. Localises Food Systems or Chains. 4. Puts Control Locally. 5. Builds Knowledge and Skills. 6. Works with Nature.

21 European Declaration on Food Sovereignty Nyeleni Europe 2011: European Forum for Food Sovereignty Krems, August 21st Changing how food is produced and consumed : Resilient food production systems, which provide healthy and safe food for all people in Europe, also preserving biodiversity and natural resources and ensuring animal welfare. Support multitude of smallholder farmers, gardeners and small-scale fishers who produce local food as the backbone of the food system. Struggle against the use of GMOs. Promote the consumption of high quality local and seasonal foods and no highly processed food Changing how food is distributed: Work towards the decentralization of food chains; Intensified relations between producers and consumers in local food webs to counter the expansion and power of supermarkets. Building blocks for people to develop their own food distribution systems and allow farmers to produce and process food for their communities. Promote supportive food safety rules and local food infrastructure for smallholder farmers. Source:

22 European Declaration on Food Sovereignty Nyeleni Europe 2011: European Forum for Food Sovereignty Krems, August 21st Valuing and improving work and social conditions in food and agriculture systems: Struggle against the exploitation and the degradation of working and social conditions in food system, as well as those of seasonal and migrant worker. Society must give greater value to the role of food producers and workers in our society. Reclaiming the right to our Commons: Struggle against the commodification, financialisation and patenting of our commons, such as: land; farmers’, traditional and reproducible seeds; livestock breeds and fish stocks; trees and forests; water; the atmosphere; and knowledge. Access to these should not be determined by markets and money. Responsibility to use our Commons sustainably, while respecting the rights of mother earth. Our Commons should be managed through collective, democratic and community control. Source:

23 European Declaration on Food Sovereignty Nyeleni Europe 2011: European Forum for Food Sovereignty Krems, August 21st Changing public policies governing our food and agricultural systems: Change public policies and governance structures that rule our food systems – from the local to the national, European and global levels – and to delegitimise corporate power. Public policies must be coherent, complementary and promote and protect food systems and food cultures. Guarantee legal frameworks that: guarantee stable and fair prices for food producers; promote environmentally-friendly agriculture. Ensure that speculation on food is banned. No harm is done to existing local or regional food systems and food cultures – either by dumping or by landgrabbing in Europe, particularly Eastern Europe. Review Common Agriculture and Food Policy. Removal of the EU Biofuels Directive. Global governance of international agricultural trade located in the FAO and not the WTO. Source:

24 EU Initiatives Lenie Dwarshuis- van de Beek The EU’s Assembly of Regional and Local Representatives, Brussels, 27 January 2011 There is a skewed balance of power in the agricultural and food sectors which is putting the survival of agriculture at risk. Around 80% of world food production is sold locally, but in the EU the figure is just 20%, because of the focus on large-scale, industrialised food production. The new challenges we face such as preventing global shortages of food, fodder and energy, and reducing the environmental damage of food production, strengthen the argument for a reappraisal of local food production as part of the Common Agricultural Policy. Initiative setting up a monitoring plan at regional level, giving local and regional authorities the responsibility to register and assess local food products and grant them a local food logo. Source:

25 EU Initiatives Lenie Dwarshuis- van de Beek The EU’s Assembly of Regional and Local Representatives, Brussels, 27 and 28 January 2011 The development of local food systems is particularly relevant for local and regional authorities. Public procurement involves up to 16 % of the gross domestic product of the EU. Article 6 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (1997) requires the integration of all environmental and social objectives into all EU policies. Public procurement can simultaneously be sustainable procurement, when used to support wider social, economic and environmental objectives in ways that offer long-term benefits. From this point of view, governments’ huge spending power could be used as a lever for the development of local food systems. Source: http://eur-

26 EU Initiatives Lenie Dwarshuis- van de Beek The EU’s Assembly of Regional and Local Representatives, Brussels, 27 and 28 January 2011 Directive 2004/18/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 31 March 2004 on the coordination of procedures for the award of public works contracts, public supply contracts and public service contracts states that the principle of freedom of movement of goods must be respected at all times, which means that local suppliers cannot be favoured. However, the regulation allows specific conditions and criteria to be incorporated in the call for tenders concerning public supply contracts, which may include particular aspects and features such as freshness or production circumstances. This possibility allows local suppliers to be selected. Nonetheless, the European Commission is asked to explore whether Article 26 of the Regulation could be amended such that ‘locally produced’ can be a standard selection criterion in tenders for the supply of food to, for instance, schools, nursing homes and public facilities.

27 EU Initiatives Dacian Cioloş Brussels, 12 May 2011 As part of his widespread consultation on the future of the CAP, highlights the many benefits of local food systems on rural development. The short chains between producer and consumer promote local jobs and help local businesses acquire a larger market – but they also bring social advantages, as short distribution channels help bring greater interaction between farmers and consumers, thus allowing food producers to react more effectively to demands for sustainable production methods. The reduction in ‘food miles’ they bring means fewer emissions, helping Europe to meet its climate change ambitions as well. Encourage: for creation of a pan-European set of guidelines that would help local and regional authorities wishing to integrate local food systems within their regional development programmes to do so effectively; setting up a monitoring plan at regional level, giving local and regional authorities the responsibility to register and assess local food products and grant them a local food logo.

28 Added Value of Food Quality animal welfare; regional product; fair prices; social or care farming (social innovation); social criteria (family farms; good working conditions); biodiversity; cultural aspects. Source: Hamm, U. Farmer Consumer Partnerships. CORE Organic Workshop, 29.11.2011.

29 Social or Care Farming Social or care or green care farming is the therapeutic use of farming practices: Utilize the whole or part of a farm; Provide health, social or educational care services for one or a range of vulnerable groups of people, including those with mental health problems, people suffering from mild to moderate depression, adults and children with learning disabilities, children with autism, those with a drug or alcohol addiction history, disaffected young people, adults and people on probation; Provide a supervised, structured programme of farming-related activities, including animal husbandry (livestock, small animals, poultry), crop and vegetable production, woodland management etc.; Provide services on a regular basis for participants; Clients can also be self-referred as part of the direct payments scheme, or be referred by family members. Source :;

30 Social Farming Source: CountryNumber of farms Netherlands839 Italy675 Slovenia15 Germany220 Flanders308 Ireland106 France900

31 Consumers’ Information EU Logo of Organic Farming The EU organic farming logo offers consumers’ confidence about the origins and qualities of their food and drink and its presence on any product ensures compliance with the EU organic farming Regulation. From July 2010 the EU organic logo is obligatory for all organic pre-packaged food products within the European Union. It is also possible to use the logo on a voluntary basis for non pre-packaged organic goods produced within the EU or any organic products imported from third countries. Previous logo Current logo

32 Creating of Consumers’ Confidence and Information Ecoproduct EU logo Latvian logo (unclear formulation andapplication) EU Ecolabel has added value - a reduced impact on the environment, and respects strict performance standards. The scheme is currently open to all products and services, except for food, drink, pharmaceuticals products and medical devices. EU environment logo. Could receive Latvian products and services. At present in Latvia are textiles, carpets and office paper under this logo. Reference on Regulations of organic farming and processing; Certification in accordance with Regulations of organic agri-food requirements done with others; Catalogue of products are not in accordance with Regulations of EU; Not clear principles and rules for certification of products, e.g. souvenirs; sauna caps etc. Non conformity with EU principles.

33 Share of organic products in the food market, % Source: Loes, A.K., Nolting, B. (2011). Increasing organic consumption through school meals—lessons learned in the iPOPY project CountryShare of organic products in the food market, % Italy3.0 Finland1.0 Germany3.4 Norway1.3 Denmark7.2

34 Possibilities for Defending Interests of Individual Comersants and Micro Enterprises ( Local and Artisan Food) Participation in existing EU and Latvia’s NGO and movements ( LAOCC*; “Slow Food” etc.) and establishing new specific NGO; Local and regional authorities or governments and LALRG**; NGO-s of regions and branches; Lobbing (positive); Collaboration with FVS; Public involvement, inter alia consumers; Legislation initiatives. * Latvian Agricultural Organization Cooperation Council ** Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments

35 Thank you for attention!

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