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The political Arctic The Canadian Arctic Canadian interests in the Arctic Security “nothing comes before that” (Harper) Sovereignty Natural resources.

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Presentation on theme: "The political Arctic The Canadian Arctic Canadian interests in the Arctic Security “nothing comes before that” (Harper) Sovereignty Natural resources."— Presentation transcript:


2 The political Arctic

3 The Canadian Arctic

4 Canadian interests in the Arctic Security “nothing comes before that” (Harper) Sovereignty Natural resources – oil, gas, diamonds, gold Environmental management Social issues

5 Arctic Sovereignty Northwest passage Beaufort Sea Hans Island Continental shelf claims

6 Northwest Passage Legal claims Internal waters by historic title No one exercised possession once claims made Belated claim 1973 Reaction of foreign governments Inability to control navigation (other uses) Internal waters included within straight baselines Stronger claims but … right of ‘innocent passage’

7 Northwest Passage The NW Passage route cuts about 5 days off alternative routes between China and Europe/Eastern North America Oil, gas and other resources would also likely transit through NW Passage to get to eastern US US and others maintain that the Passage is an international strait allowing for unfettered access One option for resolving the dispute with the US might be “joint seaway management” – infrastructure and policing

8 Northwest Passage

9 Climate Change and the Passage

10 Climate Change in the Arctic

11 The Economist on Arctic issues ture=related ture=related

12 Arctic sea ice



15 Beaufort Sea claim

16 400 onshore oil and gas fields have been discovered to date in Canada, Russia and US US geological Survey estimates 90 billion barrels of undiscovered oil and 1,670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (about 13% of world’s reserves)

17 Drilling activity in the Beaufort Sea HQ/STAGING/texte- text/nog_mp_bsmd_pg_1317059161670_eng.pdf HQ/STAGING/texte- text/nog_mp_bsmd_pg_1317059161670_eng.pdf

18 Continental Shelf Claims UNCLOS ratified in 2003 Canadian government has until 2013 to present its claim to the UN Commission on the Continental Shelf This is not about sovereignty but about rights to exploitation of resources and management regimes


20 Harper’s Arctic Policy

21 Five icebreakers, 14 long-range helicopters, radar satellite for tracking ships and mapping sea ice Lack the capacity to operate year round

22 2009 Northern Strategy exercising our Arctic Sovereignty promoting social and economic development protecting our environmental heritage improving and devolving northern governance

23 Defence Measures I Building six to eight armed Polar Class 5 Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships(AOPS); The establishment of a multi-purpose Arctic training centre in Resolute Bay, Nunavut; The creation of a berthing and refuelling facility at the existing deepwater port of Nanisivik, in Nunavut, to serve as a staging area for naval vessels in the High Arctic and for use by Canadian Coast Guard vessels as well; The establishment of a permanent army reserve unit based in Yellowknife; Expanding the size and capabilities of the Canadian Rangers and the Junior Canadian Rangers Program.

24 Defence Measures II Plans to enhance the ability of the CF to conduct surveillance through the modernization and replacement of the Aurora patrol aircraft; The Polar Epsilon Project, which will provide space-based surveillance using information from Canada’s RADARSAT-2 satellite to produce imagery for military commanders during the conduct of operations;Canada’s RADARSAT-2 The use of unmanned aerial vehicle technology;

25 The budget and the Arctic Uncertainty around commitment to Arctic research station, and to other Arctic research projects support for developing some port facilities, but Nanisivik looks questionable Arctic offshore patrol ships delayed until 2018; cost increase of $40 million Trying to multi-task, or in this case identify a clear task spending cuts at the Canadian Space Agency will result in delays or cancellation of satellites for the Arctic.

26 Arctic Cooperation I Arctic Council (1996) institutionalized cooperation on nonmilitary matters among the eight Arctic countries: Russia, the United States (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway, Iceland, Sweden, and Finland Arctic Council

27 Arctic Cooperation II Ilulissat Declaration (2008) Russia, the United States, Canada, Denmark, and Norway reaffirmed their commitment to working within an existing framework of international law to delimit their respective areas of jurisdiction over the seabed. (UN LOS Treaty) US-Russia notification agreement






33 Environment and foreign policy Environmental issues have gained increased prominence – compare 1972 Stockholm meeting with 1992 Rio conference Canadian (government and societal) interest and support for environmental issues has been uneven at best Acid rain, Great Lakes, coastal oil spills, and Arctic have been major concerns Ozone protection, Montreal protocol of 1987


35 Rio Earth Summit 1992 172 countries; 108 heads of state 2400+ representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Numerous conventions and action plans adopted

36 Rio Conference and Climate Change June 1992 summit strongly supported by Mulroney government Signed and ratified UN Framework Conventions on Climate Change and BiodiversityUN Framework Conventions on Climate Change Kyoto 1997, 3 rd Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the UNFCCC agrees on Kyoto Protocol; Chretien took lead; Canada must cut average annual greenhouse gas emissions to six per cent below 1990 levels over the period from 2008-2012; ratified in December 2002

37 Climate change and Canadian policy Kyoto Protocol ratified in 2002 (as Bush administration was rejecting it) Greenhouse gas emissions increase significantly since signing on to Kyoto Martin government complains about US policy in 2005, but does nothing to change Canadian policy Harper government rhetorically abandons Kyoto in 2006; withdraws officially in December 2011 Harper government ties its emissions policy to US policy at Copenhagen in 2009 and Cancun in 2010

38 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting required by UN convention Principal sources of emissions on energy related, both production and transportation; waste and agriculture make minor contributions Significant growth since 1990s fueled by expanding oil, gas and forestry sectors – most designed for export markets Significant growth since 1990s fueled by expanding oil, gas and forestry sectors – most designed for export markets Conference Board of Canada report card



41 Accounting for Canada’s Climate Change Policy Economic interests; energy exports; US policy coordination Multilateralism – declining importance, influence Federalism – lack of coordination Reduced influence of environmental lobby; scientific community Government is leaning heavily to shutting down dissent

42 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Canada’s Immigration Policy “When I speak of quality, I have in mind something that is quite different from what is in the mind of the average writer or speaker upon the question of immigration. I think of a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for generations, with a stout wife and half-a-dozen children, is good quality.” Sir Clifford Sifton, 1922

43 The data and tables for this section and related information can be found here: Citizenship and Immigration Canada ( s2010/index.asp) Citizenship and Immigration Canada



46 Foster ImmigrationThe Public Policy Framework Establishing categories 1976: New Immigration Act defines the 3 main priorities of immigration policy:. Priority 1: family reunification. Priority 2: humanitarian concerns. Priority 3: promotion of Canada’s economic, social, demographic, and cultural goals These priorities have varied in emphasis, but still form the core of our immigration policy

47 Foster ImmigrationThe Public Policy Framework Demographic and Labour Concerns mid 1980s increasing concern over future immigration levels in response to fertility patterns in Canada which had fallen and remain below replacement levels Early 1990s family class was reduced by limiting range of family members included; government commits to stable inflows of about 1% of the current population The switch to long term goals and the desire to increase the numbers of skilled workers continued through the 1990s (the birth of “designer immigration”)

48 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 2002 To streamline several areas of the immigration process, including those for selecting applicants and ruling on refugee claims; To broaden criteria for selecting immigrants, both to make it easier to bring in skilled workers and to promote the reunification of families; and, In the wake of September 11, 2001, to implement measures that would remove or keep out persons who were inadmissible on grounds of security, violating human rights, or involvement in criminal activity or organized crime.

49 2012 Budget and Immigration Close domestic offices and lay off more than 100 people Close visa offices in Japan, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Iran and Germany


51 Admissions by category On the following slide the top chart represents the absolute number of individuals admitted under the categories (from top to bottom) family class, economic class, refugee, other The bottom chart represents the percentage of total individuals admitted under each of the categories in the same sequence from top to bottom







58 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Immigration in Canada Today: Components of Immigration Intake Family ReunificationMembers of the Family Class HumanitarianConvention Refugees; Members of Designated Classes; Persons eligible under special humanitarian measures EconomicAssisted Relatives* Business Immigrants: Entrepreneurs Self-employed persons Investors Retirees Other Independent Immigrants*

59 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Selection Grid for Economic Immigrants (Point System) Factor One: Education Maximum 25 Factor Two: Official Languages Maximum 24 1st Official Language Maximum 16 2nd Official Language Maximum 8 Factor Three: Experience Maximum 21 Factor Four: Age Maximum 10 Factor Five: Arranged Employment in Canada Maximum 10 Factor Six: Adaptability Maximum 10 Total Maximum 100 Passing Mark 67

60 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Selection Factor: Adaptability Factor Six: AdaptabilityMaximum 10 points Spouse’s or common-law partner’s education3 - 5 Minimum one year full-time authorized work in Canada 5 Minimum two years full-time authorized post- secondary study in Canada 5 Have received points under the Arranged Employment in Canada factor 5 Family relationship in Canada5

61 Foster ImmigrationThe Public Policy Framework Immigrants’ Skills Are Underutilized Principal Cause: the non-recognition of foreign education and foreign experience Professional associations are often accused of placing too many barriers in front of otherwise qualified immigrants Even with a work authorization given by a professional association, there is still an earnings gap between newcomers and the Canadian-born as well as higher rates of unemployment

62 Responding to this problem The wage and employment gap has been identified by Jason Kenney as one of the principal restraints to raising immigration levels Some proposals suggest increasing levels from the current 250,000 to 400,000 annually Provincial governments and business are pushing for higher levels

63 Foster ImmigrationThe Public Policy Framework Provinces and immigration Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs) are in place with 10 jurisdictions (the Yukon and all provinces except Ontario and Quebec), through which provinces and territories nominate individuals as permanent residents to address specific labour market and economic development needs. Provinces also put demands on the government to increase national immigration quotas Quebec has its own agreement with the federal government Has become an area of increase conflict in light of federal efforts to restrict immigration

64 Temporary foreign workers program the selection of economic immigrants is not based on chronological order (first come, first serve basis), but on an occupational demand basis in response to industry requests – most evident in the temporary workers program Government has expedited the application program for temporary workers with online applications Government has also allowed industry to pay up to 15% less to these workers (not clear how this helps address Kenney’s concerns over wage gap)


66 Immigration policy and ethical issues Should Canada have more open immigration policies? Who regulates immigration practices – government (federal/provincial) or business? How to address unfair labour practices? What is the proper response to uneven labour markets? Should Canada be concerned with the brain drain?

67 Canada’s refugee policy Refugees are defined by international law As a signatory to international conventions, Canada is bound to offer a home to those who qualify as a refugee Issues arise in the determination process; in the level of support; in the return to ‘safe countries’

68 Canadian refugee support Canada has the one of the largest resettlement programs in the world, this program brings refugees from camps and elsewhere to Canada many under sponsorship activities Current numbers allowed to come to Canada are about 14,000 of the approximately 100,000 who are resettled annually of the 16 million refugees worldwide Last year Canada was the eighth largest supporter of the UNHCR’s budget, contributing about $59 million.

69 Canadian policy concerns Number of refugees allowed to remain has been declining; Safe Third Country Agreement with US; Mexico, Czech visas 2009 Determination of qualification seems arbitrary Proposed policy changes that arose from Sun Sea incident in 2010 through Bill C-31: Proposed extended detention period for ‘irregular arrivals’ Concerns also raised about limited time to prepare for appeals Increase in the discretionary authority of the minister, for example in identifying safe countries

70 Source country refers to the principal country of alleged persecution

71 Diaspora communities Foreign born and immigrant communities have always been an important political consideration in foreign policy So-called ‘ethnic lobby’ has had influence on specific decisions Politicians will also use foreign policy to win the ‘ethnic vote’ Personal connections/interest Expertise, information, familiarity

72 Global Migration Flows Top emigration countries in the world are: Mexico, India, China, Ukraine, Bangladesh, Pakistan, UK, Philippines, Turkey Top immigration destinations are: US, Russia, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Canada

73 Diaspora communities Foreign policy officials are looking to these communities in a more systematic manner Diaspora communities send more money back in remittances than the government provides in foreign aid Canada and other governments also looking more closely at non-traditional diplomacy – citizens through both diaspora communities and Canadians abroad

74 Diaspora communities These communities can be problematic – internal divisions There are also concerns that they have too much influence in shaping foreign policy interests Yet if national interests are determined by the interests of citizens at what point do the interests of diaspora communities become Canadian national interests At the same time, foreign policy might benefit from their involvement, eg. no Afghani on the Manley Panel Governments will pick and choose, though this might have political costs

75 The Canadian Diaspora 2.8 million Canadians live abroad (about 8% of the Canadian population) ‘Canadians Abroad’ a number of groups already exist in New York, Florida, Silicon Valley, Hong Kong, Philippines “Global Citizens” initiative being considered by DFAIT 2012 budget cuts result in the withdrawal of $5m support for Canadian Studies programs abroad (39 countries) that reportedly generate $70m annually

76 Human rights and religious freedom: is this diaspora politics? Political parties in Canada have always played to the ethnic vote, is this government different Harper government has dismantled Rights and Democracy as an independent agency and brought it into DFAIT; also cut support to groups critical of Israeli human rights practices Discussion of a centre for promoting democracy has been shelved Developing an Office of Religious Freedom to champion religious rights (inspired by Shabaz Bhatti, assassinated Pakistani Minister) Policy statements on Holodomor, Armenian genocide, Japanese use of ‘comfort women; but critical towards Tamils

77 Canada’s rank among 194 countries (rank may vary slightly depending on year consulted) 1 st in percentage foreign born population 2 nd largest in size; 35 th in population 2 nd in advanced education 2 nd in energy production among OECD 4 th human development index 5 th per capita income 7 th in trade 9 th in competitiveness 9 th in FDI recipient; 10 th in FDI abroad 13 th in military spending

78 Given Canada’s position in the global community, is the country - pulling its weight punching above its weight, or ( and changing the metaphor ) shirking its responsibilities


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