Presentation on theme: "NEW PERCEPTIONS CHANGING RELATIONSHIP The Imperial Crisis."— Presentation transcript:
NEW PERCEPTIONS CHANGING RELATIONSHIP The Imperial Crisis
TURNING POINT CHANGE IN COLONIAL-BRITISH RELATIONSHIP French and Indian War 1754-1763
Competition for Empire Four Imperial wars 1689-1763 Issue = World Balance of Power (BOP) Competition France v. Britain French and Indian War starts in colonies Issue = control of Ohio River Valley; all of North America Washington – Fort Necessity
North America in 1750
Albany Plan Franklin – defensive union Failed – no desire to give up power Iroquois threaten to desert British and trade w/ French
Seven Years War Native American tribes exploited both sides! Pitt – War for Empire “Belt of the World” Great Power
French and Indian War 1754-1763 Settlement: Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain controls all of N. America Contrasting perceptions and post war goals True losers = League of Iroquois and Indian tribes – lost ability to control BOP on the frontier
North America in 1763
Effects of the War on Britain? It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary !
Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2.It created socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
Treaty of Paris 1763 Watershed Benign NeglectNew Imperialism Autonomy unified system Who’s the boss? Who Rules?
Parliamentary Sovereignty v. Assembly Parliament governs– can make all laws, levy any tax Goal = increased control and increased revenue Virtual representation Only the assembly can tax Assembly protects liberty Natural law and government experience supports Direct representation
Factors that contribute to the revolution The change in relationship post 1763 American perception of rights, liberty- both political and economic British inconsistency in governing Cadre – gentry of elite who help to “create” the revolution
Signals of change 1763 Neolin Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 Line of Proclamation Otis – Writs of assistance
Imperial Policies 1761 writs of assistance A 1761 writs of assistance Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight.
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763
Line of Proclamation
Three Imperial Crises Escalating tensions British action> American response >British reaction New Tea Act 1773 Townshend Acts B O1767 T Grenville Program 1764
Representation & Sovereignty What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? absolute parliamentary sovereignty sovereignty of the assembly Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
Grenville Program 1764 Taxation and Representation British Actions Sugar Act Currency Act Quartering Act Stamp Act 1765 Declaratory Act 1766 American Response Henry-Virginia Resolves Stamp Act Congress Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Riots
Taxation and Representation Taxation External v Internal Indirect v Direct (trade) (revenue) British – can tax both Americans – External only Representation Virtual v Direct Br Am Only the assembly can directly tax Fears of conspiracy against liberty
Stamp Act Crisis
Townshend Acts 1767 External Taxes – lead, paper, paint, tea, glass Increase customs collectors Increased troops to Boston Increased use of writs of assistance REPEALED BUT tea tax remains Boston Massacre 1770 BOT applied Dickinson – “Letters from an American Farmer” “circular letter” Change in colonial thinking – only assembly can tax for all purposes Riots against customs agents
The Excise Man
Revere’s Boston Massacre
New Tea Act 1773 Period of Calm 1770-1773 Grants monopoly, decreased tea prices Gaspee; committees of correspondence, NY assembly disbanded Boston Tea Party
British Reaction Coercive Acts – punish Mass. Close port of Boston Dissolve assembly – martial law New Quartering Act Administration of Justice Act Quebec Act - Canada Ohio River Valley attached to Canada No representative assembly
Gage in Boston
First Continental Congress: Sept 1774 Moderate, conciliatory Plan for common defense Call up militia (minutemen) Declaration of Rights and Grievances Suffolk Resolves Nullified Intolerable Acts Boycott Continental Association
Push toward radicalism Lexington & Concord Paine – Common Sense Economic, political, social emotional Bunker (Breed’s) Hill
Lexington and Concord
Paine’s Common Sense
Second Continental Congress: May 1775 Created Continental Army Washington --- Commander in Chief Olive Branch Petition Declaration of Causes of taking up Arms Secret Committees – navy, Canada, allies Declaration of Independence
Philosophy of government – natural law and justification of right to rebel Indictments – GIII Declaration of independence – “states”