Presentation on theme: "Bell work At the beginning of the civil war both sides had notable strengths & weaknesses. List one advantage of the Union and one advantage of the Confederacy."— Presentation transcript:
1Bell workAt the beginning of the civil war both sides had notable strengths & weaknesses. List one advantage of the Union and one advantage of the Confederacy.
3A Shifting Political Scene Millard Fillmore – Whig PresidentAngered northerners by support of Fugitive Slave ActAngered Southerners by supporting California as a free stateCompromise of 1850 directly to blame for shrinking of Whig PartyExample of the awful effects of a disintegrating Whig
4The Know - NothingsNative born Protestants, upset by immigration and rising CatholicismAnti-immigration movement became the Known Nothings (American Party)Oppose immigrationAnti-slavery until 1856
5Republican Party This party is fiercely anti-Slavery Most popular in the NorthOpposed popular sovereignty and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
6Sectional Divisions Intensify Election of 1856James Buchanan (Dem) winsHe promised to “stop the agitation of the slavery issue”This appealed to most Americans (particularly in the South)Republicans did receive a lot of votes though
7Dred Scott Decision Causes Outrage Dred Scott – A slave who had been taken to the free states of Illinois and WisconsinHe claimed that this made him free b/c it was north of the Missouri Compromise LineAbolitionists would help him take his case to the US Supreme Court
8Dred Scott v. Sanford Chief Justic Roger B. Taney decided: Temporary residence in a free state did not make Scott freeScott was property, not a citizen, therefore he had no rightsStated that no African-American could be a citizenCongress could not ban slavery because doing so would take away the property of slave owners (which is unconstitutional)
9Dred Scott v. SanfordSoutherners rejoice because it meant slavery could be used anywhereNortherners, especially Republicans and Know-Nothings were alarmedNorthernersSoutherners
10Lincoln-Douglas Debates Fighting for a seat in the Illinois SenateSeries of debates over expansion of slaveryLincoln = Republican (anti-Slavery)Douglas = Democrat (popular sovereignty)
11Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln =“Honest Abe”Tall, lanky, slow of speechOpposed popular sovereignty and Kansas-Nebraska ActAttacked Dred Scott decisionDouglas = “Little Giant”Short, round, energetic speechSupported popular sovereigntyBelieved slavery was promoted in our Constitution
12Lincoln-Douglas Debates Douglas would win the electionHowever, Lincoln won loyal followersThis following would help him in his next election bid
13John Brown’s RaidBrown thought he was “an angel of God”, destined to bring an end to slaveryHe felt violence was the answer, and scoured for funds and recruits to lead an uprisingJust imagine that is John Brown instead.
14Harpers FerryBrown and 21 men set out to take an arsenal at Harpers Ferry in VirginiaHoped slaves would join in the revolutionTrains, canals offered escapeNear free states in the North
15Harpers FerryThe plan failed as few were willing to join this crazy guyLocal residents surrounded the arsenal and federal troops came to arrest the men2 of his sons killed, some escaped, and others arrested and executedThe North and South would blame each other, and the divide grew wider and widerWorst wax museum ever?
17Election of 1860 Democrats Split Their Support Southern Democrats sought to protect slavery from federal interferenceNorthern Democrats (led by Douglas) wanted popular sovereigntyWhen Douglas followers win the argument, Southern Democrats marched out in protest
18Republicans Nominate Lincoln Republicans liked Lincoln’s moderate view on slaveryThey wanted to stop slavery from spreadingDid NOT want to interfere with slavery in states where it already existed
19Lincoln Wins in 1860!Lincoln won 40% of popular vote and 60% of electoral votesHe didn’t even win a single southern state thoughSo, does it look like the South even matters?
20Lincoln Wins in 1860!Lincoln wasn’t even on the ballot for most Southern states, and Douglas came in 2nd in popular vote (he only won 2 states!)Now, it is clear that one candidate represented the North, while another the SouthThe two sections were fractured seemingly beyond repair
21The Union Collapses Southern States Leave the Union How could a man be elected without a single southern vote?The South is outraged, and on Dec 20, 1860, South Carolina secedes from the UnionCited the fact that the president and government were “hostile to slavery”6 others follow immediately
22The Confederacy Is Formed These 7 seceding states formed the Confederate States of AmericaTheir constitution emphasized states rights, protection of slavery, and the right to secedeIt outlawed import of slaves (to win favor with GB and France)Its President would be Jefferson Davis
23Crittenden Compromise This was a final attempt at compromise made by some southern statesIt reestablished Missouri Compromise Line and demanded reimbursement for slaves that ran awayVoted Down by CongressWhy do you think?
24Outbreak of War Lincoln is inaugurated He states that he will not interfere with slavery in the southHe states he WILL preserve the UnionHe states there will be no war unless started by the South
25Fort SumterWhen each state seceded, they took over all forts within their state (except for a few like…)Ft. Sumter (in SC) was an important harborConfederates had prevented Union troops at this fort from being supplied
26Fort SumterLincoln was forced to protect this fort, but wishes to without fightingPromises the South that he is sending food, no weapons to these troopsThe South is too suspicious and demand the troops leave, but they refuseConfederate troops proceed to fire on the fort, starting the Civil War
27Fort Sumter FallsUnion troops forced to surrender as they run out of suppliesNorth is angry, Lincoln calls on 75,000 volunteers to fightSouth responds by calling on volunteers to fight the UnionBoth sides thought it would be a quick war…they were wrong