Presentation on theme: "Bell work At the beginning of the civil war both sides had notable strengths & weaknesses. List one advantage of the Union and one advantage of the Confederacy."— Presentation transcript:
Bell work At the beginning of the civil war both sides had notable strengths & weaknesses. List one advantage of the Union and one advantage of the Confederacy.
Political Realignment Deepens the Crisis
A Shifting Political Scene Millard Fillmore – Whig President Angered northerners by support of Fugitive Slave Act Angered Southerners by supporting California as a free state Compromise of 1850 directly to blame for shrinking of Whig Party Example of the awful effects of a disintegrating Whig
The Know - Nothings Native born Protestants, upset by immigration and rising Catholicism Anti-immigration movement became the Known Nothings (American Party) Oppose immigration Anti-slavery until 1856
Republican Party This party is fiercely anti-Slavery Most popular in the North Opposed popular sovereignty and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Sectional Divisions Intensify Election of 1856 James Buchanan (Dem) wins He promised to “stop the agitation of the slavery issue” This appealed to most Americans (particularly in the South) Republicans did receive a lot of votes though
Dred Scott Decision Causes Outrage Dred Scott – A slave who had been taken to the free states of Illinois and Wisconsin He claimed that this made him free b/c it was north of the Missouri Compromise Line Abolitionists would help him take his case to the US Supreme Court
Dred Scott v. Sanford Chief Justic Roger B. Taney decided: Temporary residence in a free state did not make Scott free Scott was property, not a citizen, therefore he had no rights Stated that no African- American could be a citizen Congress could not ban slavery because doing so would take away the property of slave owners (which is unconstitutional)
Dred Scott v. Sanford Southerners rejoice because it meant slavery could be used anywhere Northerners, especially Republicans and Know-Nothings were alarmed Southerners Northerners
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Fighting for a seat in the Illinois Senate Series of debates over expansion of slavery Lincoln = Republican (anti-Slavery) Douglas = Democrat (popular sovereignty)
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln =“Honest Abe” Tall, lanky, slow of speech Opposed popular sovereignty and Kansas-Nebraska Act Attacked Dred Scott decision Douglas = “Little Giant” Short, round, energetic speech Supported popular sovereignty Believed slavery was promoted in our Constitution
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Douglas would win the election However, Lincoln won loyal followers This following would help him in his next election bid
John Brown’s Raid Brown thought he was “an angel of God”, destined to bring an end to slavery He felt violence was the answer, and scoured for funds and recruits to lead an uprising Just imagine that is John Brown instead.
Harpers Ferry Brown and 21 men set out to take an arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia Hoped slaves would join in the revolution Trains, canals offered escape Near free states in the North
Harpers Ferry The plan failed as few were willing to join this crazy guy Local residents surrounded the arsenal and federal troops came to arrest the men 2 of his sons killed, some escaped, and others arrested and executed The North and South would blame each other, and the divide grew wider and wider Worst wax museum ever?
Lincoln, Secession, and War
Election of 1860 Democrats Split Their Support Southern Democrats sought to protect slavery from federal interference Northern Democrats (led by Douglas) wanted popular sovereignty When Douglas followers win the argument, Southern Democrats marched out in protest
Republicans Nominate Lincoln Republicans liked Lincoln’s moderate view on slavery They wanted to stop slavery from spreading Did NOT want to interfere with slavery in states where it already existed
Lincoln Wins in 1860! Lincoln won 40% of popular vote and 60% of electoral votes He didn’t even win a single southern state though So, does it look like the South even matters?
Lincoln Wins in 1860! Lincoln wasn’t even on the ballot for most Southern states, and Douglas came in 2 nd in popular vote (he only won 2 states!) Now, it is clear that one candidate represented the North, while another the South The two sections were fractured seemingly beyond repair
The Union Collapses Southern States Leave the Union How could a man be elected without a single southern vote? The South is outraged, and on Dec 20, 1860, South Carolina secedes from the Union Cited the fact that the president and government were “hostile to slavery” 6 others follow immediately
The Confederacy Is Formed These 7 seceding states formed the Confederate States of America Their constitution emphasized states rights, protection of slavery, and the right to secede It outlawed import of slaves (to win favor with GB and France) Its President would be Jefferson Davis
Crittenden Compromise This was a final attempt at compromise made by some southern states It reestablished Missouri Compromise Line and demanded reimbursement for slaves that ran away Voted Down by Congress Why do you think?
Outbreak of War Lincoln is inaugurated He states that he will not interfere with slavery in the south He states he WILL preserve the Union He states there will be no war unless started by the South
Fort Sumter When each state seceded, they took over all forts within their state (except for a few like…) Ft. Sumter (in SC) was an important harbor Confederates had prevented Union troops at this fort from being supplied
Fort Sumter Lincoln was forced to protect this fort, but wishes to without fighting Promises the South that he is sending food, no weapons to these troops The South is too suspicious and demand the troops leave, but they refuse Confederate troops proceed to fire on the fort, starting the Civil War
Fort Sumter Falls Union troops forced to surrender as they run out of supplies North is angry, Lincoln calls on 75,000 volunteers to fight South responds by calling on volunteers to fight the Union Both sides thought it would be a quick war…they were wrong