2Formal Amendment Objectives: Identify the four different ways by which the Constitution may be formally changed.Explain how the formal amendment process illustrates the principles of federalism and popular sovereignty.Outline the 27 amendments that have been added to the Constitution.
3Formal Amendment Why It Matters: The Framers of the Constitution realized that, inevitably, changes would have to be made in the document they wrote. Article V provides for the process of formal amendment. To this point, 27 amendments have been added to the Constitution.
4Formal Amendment Political Dictionary: Amendment Formal amendment Bill of Rights
5Formal Amendment 4 million to 290 million 13 colonies to 50 states Constitution is NOT the same now as in 1787.
6Formal Amendment Formal Amendment Process Article V Proposal by 2/3 of each house of Congress to be ratified by 3/4 of states (38).This method has been used 26 out of 27 amendmentsProposal by 2/3 of each house and a call for conventions in the states. Then approved by 3/4 of states (38).Only used once on the 21st amendment in 1933.Call from 2/3 of state legislatures (34) for a national convention to consider amendment. It must then be ratified by 3/4 of states (38). Never used.An amendment may be proposed by a national convention and then ratified in 3/4 of state conventions (38). Never used.
7Formal Amendment Formal Amendment Process (cont.) Federalism and Popular SovereigntyApproval process reinforces federalism and indirectly sovereignty.Sometimes criticized as being representative and not direct.The state legislature must act first.
8Formal Amendment Formal Amendment Process (cont.) Proposed Amendments No state may be deprived of its representation in the Senate.The President is NOT involved—does not sign.If rejected by a state it may later be reconsidered, once approved, however, it is final.10,000 amendment proposals have been submitted.Only 33 have been sent to the states and only 27 ratified.
9Formal Amendment Formal Amendment Process (cont.) Proposed Amendments (cont.)10,000 amendment proposals have been submitted.Only 33 have been sent to the states and only 27 ratified. Six failed:One proposed in 1789 with the Bill of Rights died.One offered in 1789 became the 27th (Congressional Compensation).1810-foreign titles void citizenship.1861-no slavery amendments.1924 an act to regulate child labor.1972 Equal Rights Amendment by 1984 fell short.1978 representation for the District of ColumbiaA 7 year time limit for enactment started in 1917 (ERA in 1979 was given a 3 year extension).
10Formal Amendment The 27 Amendments The Bill of Rights Proposed in 1789—ratified by 1791.The Later AmendmentsThe 12th corrected a electoral college problem after the election of 1800.The 13th abolished slavery in 1865, the 14th granted citizenship to blacks in 1868, and in 1870 the 15th granted the right to vote to blacks.
11Formal Amendment The 27 Amendments (cont.) The Later Amendments (cont.)The 18th in 1919 prohibited alcohol and was repealed by the 21st inThe 19th in 1920 granted women the vote.The 22nd in 1951 limited the presidency to two terms.The 25th in 1967 deals with presidential succession.The 26th in 1971 granted the vote to all over 18.The 27th in 1992 prohibits congressional raises during the “current” term.
12Constitutional Change by Other Means Objectives:Identify how basic legislation has changed the Constitution over time.Describe the ways in which the Constitution has been altered by executive and judicial actions.Analyze the role of party practices and custom in shaping the Constitution.
13Constitutional Change by Other Means Why It Matters:The 27 formal amendments to the Constitution have not been a major part of the process by which that document has kept pace with more than 200 years of far-reaching change in this country. Rather, constitutional change has more often occurred as a result of the day-to-day, year-to-year workings of government.
14Constitutional Change by Other Means Political Dictionary:Executive AgreementTreatyElectoral CollegeCabinetSenatorial Courtesy
15Constitutional Change by Other Means Basic LegislationExpanded into the detailTens of thousands of “laws”Executive ActionCommander in ChiefExecutive Agreement—used frequently nowTreaty—cumbersome process
16Constitutional Change by Other Means Court DecisionsMarbury v. Madison in 1803A “constitutional convention in continuous session”Party PracticesNot in the beginning—Washington warned against.Party ConventionsElectoral College
17Constitutional Change by Other Means CustomUnwrittenCabinetVice President role developedSenatorial courtesy—a nominee must be acceptable in home state.No third-term for 150 years