3The Promise of the Enlightenment Contract government (John Locke)A political theory that views government as stemming from the people, who agree to surrender some personal freedom in return for a government that guarantees protection of citizens’ rights and property.Laissez faire (Adam Smith)An economic theory that advocates freeing economies from government intervention and control.
4The Promise of the Enlightenment Salonswere places where people discussed the ideas of the Enlightenment, published in the Encyclopedia ( )
5authority to govern comes from the people, not from God or tradition. Atlantic RevolutionsThe North American Revolution 1775–1787The French Revolution1789–1815Haitian RevolutionLatin American RevolutionsPopular sovereigntyauthority to govern comes from the people, not from God or tradition.
6Comparisons Similarities Differences All bourgeoisie ( creole, gentlemen of color, middle class) revolutions.All inspired by enlightened (liberal)idealsAll against absolute ( conservative) monarchsAll in response to taxes paid to high war debtsAll wanted popular sovereigntyAll will follow a pattern of conservative to moderate to radical back to conservative rule ( crane Brinton’s anatomy of a revolution)All will lead to revolutionary warsAll will lead to constitutionsAmerica retains popular sovereigntyFrance returns to revolutionary cycle several times ( Which French Revolution?)Latin American creole’s failure to achieve full independence leads to the rise of caudillos( military strongmen/meet the new boss, same as the old boss)Haitian only slave uprisingMexico led by Catholic priests and lower classesLatin America , Haiti and France attempted to aim slaveryNorth America inspiration for all
7Crane Briton’s Anatomy of a Revolution 1. People from all social classes are discontented. 2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the government. 3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. 4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes. 5. The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile. 6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates. 7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society. 8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups. 9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself. 10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.
8Revolutions take their course 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries.3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve.5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes.6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almostcomplete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.8. The extremists try to create a "heaven on earth" by introducing their whole program and bypunishing all their opponents.9. A period of terror occurs.10. Moderate groups regain power. The revolution is over
9North American Revolution 1775-1787 A conservative political movement aimed to preserve colonial liberties, rather than gain new ones.Colonists regarded autonomy as their birthright.Colonial society was more egalitarian than Europe or Latin America.Revolted against “taxation without representation.”
10North American Revolution 1775-1787 U.S. Constitution was one of the first documents that put the ideas of the Enlightenment into practice.
11French Revolution 1789-1815 French government was bankrupt Unlike the American Revolution, it was driven by social conflicts based on the unfairness of the Old RegimeEffort to create a new society during the Reign of Terror.Napoleon Bonaparte spread the ideals of the revolution through conquest.
12Legacy of the French Revolution: Birth of -isms NationalismCreate a nation-state unified under the rule of law.LiberalismCreate centralized nation-states ruled under a constitutionConservatismMaintain the status-quo, tradition, continuity and monarchies.RomanticismGlorified nature, emotion, and the imagination in art and philosophy.
15Conservatism: Prince Klemens von Metternich Conservatism is a political philosophy which embodies a desire to prevent change. 19th Century conservatives believed in the power behind absolute monarchy, the aristocracy and the Church. The conservatives of Europe succeeded in creating an era between 1815 and 1914 without war. They did so through repression of dissension and thought.
16Haitian Revolution,Santo Domingue was a French Caribbean colony.Regarded as the richest colony in the world.Majority of the population were slaves.Solidarity and suffering made it ripe for revolution.
17Haitian Revolution,French Revolution inspired revolts and demand for political equality.In1793, a proclamation granted slaves freedom.In 1794, the French revolutionary government declared blacks had rights equal to whites.This created wide-spread rebellions across the Caribbean and Latin America.
18Haitian Revolution,Toussaint L’Overture possessed strong military skills and became the leader in the Haitian Revolution.Although he modeled French ideals of freedom and citizenship, he re-enslaved many Haitians.
20Mexican RevolutionFather Miguel Hidalgo opened a campaign against colonial rule in 1810 with the help from the popular classes, natives and creoles.Augustin de Iturbide created a constitutional monarchy in 1821.
21Simon Bolivar “Liberator” Took up arms, leading military campaigns , which along with popular uprisings, ousted Spain from much of Latin America.1830 created the Gran Colombia in northern South America.
22Brazilian Independence Pedro I, son of Portugal’s king, declared Brazil independent in 1822 and made himself king.More peaceful transition than the rest of Latin America with little change to the social structure.
23Latin American Revolutions Creoles were offended by the Spanish monarchy’s efforts to control them in the eighteenth century.Latin American independence movements were limited at first because there was little tradition of local self-government.Society was authoritarian, with class divisions.
24Latin American Revolutions Many leaders were liberals and their message appealed to the lower classes.In reality, the indigenous people and slaves got little benefit from independence.It was very difficult to unite various Spanish colonies, unlike the United States.The United States grew more democratic and wealthy while Latin American countries grew more impoverished, undemocratic, and unstable.
25Global ImpactInspired efforts to abolish slavery, give women greater rights, and extend franchise in many countriesNationalism was shaped by revolutionsPrinciples of equality eventually gave rise to socialism and communism
26Did the revolutions achieve their goals? YesnoPopular sovereignty was achievedNew constitutions enshrined with enlightened ideals were formedSome economic freedoms were achieved by elite (Bourgeoisie, Creoles, freed men of color)Nationalism increased with new national identityLimits were placed on conservative forces (church, nobility)Still slavery although abolition movement would increase (but why?)Women still not provided rightsEconomic ties to European monarchs still exist (economic imperialism)War debts tied new nations to debtorsFreedoms don’t apply equally to allRacism only increases (now a burgeoning scientific theory known as social Darwinism is perpetuated)