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What we know….. Growing Sectionalism Growing Sectionalism –Sectional differences at Constitutional Convention!  3/5 compromise –VA & KY Resolutions –

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Presentation on theme: "What we know….. Growing Sectionalism Growing Sectionalism –Sectional differences at Constitutional Convention!  3/5 compromise –VA & KY Resolutions –"— Presentation transcript:

1 What we know….. Growing Sectionalism Growing Sectionalism –Sectional differences at Constitutional Convention!  3/5 compromise –VA & KY Resolutions – nullification (over Sedition Act) –Tariff of 1828 – SC threatens to secede –Economic differences – industrial v. agricultural –Southern resentment of northerner’s interference (abolition, temperance, etc.) –Growing tensions over states’ rights vs. federal rights –Issue of slavery in new territories

2 The Coming of the Civil War Chapter 10 The Union in Crisis

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4 the-story-of-us/videos/civil-war

5 Effects of the Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri – slave, Maine - free Missouri – slave, Maine - free No slavery north of 36 north latitude No slavery north of 36 north latitude Did not settle whether slavery would be legal in the new territories Did not settle whether slavery would be legal in the new territories Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (after Mexican War) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (after Mexican War) –Northerners feared new states would be slave –Tried to keep slavery out of the territories –Wilmot Proviso - failed Free Soil Party – wanted to limit slavery in territories Free Soil Party – wanted to limit slavery in territories Popular sovereignty – let the people decide on the issue of slavery Popular sovereignty – let the people decide on the issue of slavery

6 Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state California admitted as a free state Territories of New Mexico and Utah will decide whether slavery would be legal (popular sovereignty) Territories of New Mexico and Utah will decide whether slavery would be legal (popular sovereignty) End slave trade (but not slavery) in Washington, D.C. End slave trade (but not slavery) in Washington, D.C. Strict Fugitive Slave Act Strict Fugitive Slave Act Texas gives up claims to New Mexico ($10 mil.) Texas gives up claims to New Mexico ($10 mil.)

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8 Debate over Compromise of 1850 John C. Calhoun opposes John C. Calhoun opposes –Epitomizes Southern position –State’s rights – right for states to nullify acts or withdraw from the union –Government’s job is to protect right to own property Daniel Webster supports Daniel Webster supports –Preserve the Union –Felt slavery would not be necessary in New Mexico & California –Supports popular sovereignty

9 Compromise of 1850 passes  Stephen Douglas (Illinois) helps push it through Congress  Southerners not happy about California  Northerners not happy about the Fugitive Slave Act  Again, only temporarily settles the issue

10 2. Protest and Violence Outcry against Fugitive Slave Act Outcry against Fugitive Slave Act –Slave hunters could go into the North to get slaves North passed personal liberty laws North passed personal liberty laws –Nullified FSA and allowed slave hunters to be arrested –Resisted slave hunters

11 Underground Railroad Network of safe houses to assist slaves in escaping Network of safe houses to assist slaves in escaping Most famous “conductor”: Harriet Tubman (led over 300 to freedom) Most famous “conductor”: Harriet Tubman (led over 300 to freedom) After Fugitive Slave Law, went to Canada since bounty hunters were looking for them After Fugitive Slave Law, went to Canada since bounty hunters were looking for them story-of-us/videos/harriet-tubman-and-the- underground-railroad story-of-us/videos/harriet-tubman-and-the- underground-railroad story-of-us/videos/harriet-tubman-and-the- underground-railroad story-of-us/videos/harriet-tubman-and-the- underground-railroad

12 Uncle Tom’s Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852) By Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852) –Depicts harshness of slavery Reaction to the fictional novel Reaction to the fictional novel –Shocks many –Northerners see it as an accurate portrayal, fear slavery will ruin America –Southerners feel it is untrue  Plantations are happy families  Slave owners care more for their workers than factory owners  Cannibals All! by George Fitzhugh

13 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Stephen Douglas - IL Stephen Douglas - IL –Wanted to connect Chicago with the west via railroad –Wanted to run for President, needed Southern Democratic support Introduces the Kansas- Nebraska Act in January 1854 Introduces the Kansas- Nebraska Act in January 1854 –Popular-sovereignty – people will decide –Nullified Missouri Compromise (how?)

14 Bleeding Kansas Race for settlement of Kansas Race for settlement of Kansas –Pro and anti slavery forces move in; violence –“Sack of Lawrence” – antislavery town –“Pottawatomie Massacre” – slavery town (John Brown leads) Charles Sumner (anti-slavery Senator) beaten by Preston Brooks Charles Sumner (anti-slavery Senator) beaten by Preston Brooks Brooks’ uncle was insulted by Sumner’s attack on south and slavery Brooks’ uncle was insulted by Sumner’s attack on south and slavery

15 3. Changes in Political Parties Whigs decline Whigs decline Nativist movement continues (anti- Immigrant) Nativist movement continues (anti- Immigrant) Know Nothings Know Nothings –Secret nativist society –“I know nothing” American party develops from them American party develops from them –Popular in northern areas –Dies out eventually

16 The Republican Party 1854 – beginning of Republican party 1854 – beginning of Republican party Party develops against slavery Party develops against slavery Gained support from anti-slavery Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers Gained support from anti-slavery Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers Direct ancestor of the modern Republican Party Direct ancestor of the modern Republican Party

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18 Slavery and National Politics Election of 1856 – James Buchanan – Dem. Election of 1856 – James Buchanan – Dem. The Dred Scott Decision 1857 The Dred Scott Decision 1857 –Court rules against Scott  Not a citizen, could not sue  Slaves were property  Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (couldn’t ban slavery!) Huge setback for North Huge setback for North

19 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 Illinois debates between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln over the issue of slavery in the territories Illinois debates between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln over the issue of slavery in the territories Douglas wins Senate election in 1858 Douglas wins Senate election in 1858 Lincoln becomes well- known Lincoln becomes well- known

20 John Brown’s Raid October 16, 1859, raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia October 16, 1859, raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia Wanted to take weapons and give them to slaves Wanted to take weapons and give them to slaves Colonel Robert E. Lee helps capture Colonel Robert E. Lee helps capture Brown hanged Brown hanged hows/america-the-story- of-us/videos/john-brown hows/america-the-story- of-us/videos/john-brown hows/america-the-story- of-us/videos/john-brown hows/america-the-story- of-us/videos/john-brown

21 4. Election of 1860 Democrats split nomination Democrats split nomination –Southern Democrats – John C. Breckinridge (states’ rights/slavery) –Northern Democrats – Stephen Douglas (popular sovereignty) Constitutional Party chooses John Bell of Tennessee (moderate) Constitutional Party chooses John Bell of Tennessee (moderate) Republican Party chooses Abraham Lincoln Republican Party chooses Abraham Lincoln The Election The Election –South split between Bell and Breckinridge  Lincoln not even on the ballot in the South –Lincoln wins North and the election –South is outraged; feel they were not even counted

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23 South Carolina Secedes South angry that Lincoln wins without an electoral vote from the South South angry that Lincoln wins without an electoral vote from the South South Carolina secedes on December 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes on December 20, 1860 GA, AL, FL, MS, LA, TX GA, AL, FL, MS, LA, TX Alexander Stephens (GA) believes in unity but still secedes Alexander Stephens (GA) believes in unity but still secedes Later VP of Conf. Later VP of Conf.

24 The Confederate States of America Montgomery, AL - create a new government (later moved to Richmond) Montgomery, AL - create a new government (later moved to Richmond) Jefferson Davis chosen as President Jefferson Davis chosen as President Lincoln sworn in on March 3, 1861, refused to honor the Confederacy Lincoln sworn in on March 3, 1861, refused to honor the Confederacy the-story-of-us/videos/abraham-lincoln the-story-of-us/videos/abraham-lincoln the-story-of-us/videos/abraham-lincoln the-story-of-us/videos/abraham-lincoln

25 The Civil War Begins Fort Sumter – 1 st fighting Fort Sumter – 1 st fighting –Federal fort – SC –Should Lincoln re-supply the fort or let it fall to the Confederacy? –Duty to enforce law –Maj. Anderson surrenders fort to Gen. Beauregard eos/us-inches-closer-to-war eos/us-inches-closer-to-war War declared between the two nations War declared between the two nations –VA, NC, TN, AR join Confederacy

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